Masjid Al Islah

               Masjid Al Islah Serdang Raya 43300 Seri Kembangan Selangor

 

مسجد الاصلاح

 جالن 7/7، تامن سردڠ راي، 43300 سري كمبڠن، سلاڠور


 

 
 
 
 فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا اطْمَأْنَنْتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۚ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَوْقُوتًا
 

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Book Conten :

Ahle sunnat wal jamat :   Following Of The Imams:   Imam Abu Haniffa:   Imam Mallik:   Imam Shaffi

Imam Ahmad:  Shariah:   Meaning Hadiths:   Shorthistory IlmulUsul:   Forty Hadis kudsi

 

Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat 

WHO ARE THE AHLE SUNNAT WAL JAMAAT?

  1. The Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat is the largest group of Muslims and the only group whose beliefs and teachings are truly in accordance with the Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
     

  2. The beliefs of this group are the same as the beliefs of the Sahaba or noble companions of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and the Salf-e-Saliheen (our great pious predecessors).
     

  3. In many Ahadith, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) strongly advised the Muslims to follow his Sunnah and to remain steadfast upon the path of his Sahaba, the Salf-e-Saliheen and the majority of Muslims to remain steadfast upon the way of the Ahle Sunnah.
     

  4. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "I have left two things behind me for you (the Ummah). You will never go astray as long as you follow these two things. One of these two things is Allah's Holy Book (the Holy Quran) and the other is the Sunnah of his Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)." (Muwatta Imam Malik)
     

  5. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that after he passes away his Ummah should remain firmly steadfast upon his Sunnah and upon the way of his four Muslim Caliphs. He advised us to follow this path alone and to be beware of innovations, which contradict the Holy Quran and his Sunnah. (Abu Dawud; Tirmizi)
     

  6. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Follow the way of the largest group of Muslims! For, he who deviates from this group will be thrown into Hell!" (Ibn Majah)

REMAINING WITH THE AHLE SUNNAT WAL JAMAAT

  1. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) advised us to remain firm with the largest group of Muslims and remain steadfast upon their way in beliefs and in actions.
     

  2. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Allah will never allow my Ummah to unite upon misguidance and incorrect beliefs. Allah's mercy, blessings and protection are with the largest group of Muslims. And he who deviates from this largest group of Muslims will be thrown into Hell." (Tirmizi)
     

  3. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "He who deviates from the largest group of Muslims, even as much as a hand span, has himself cut off his connection with Islam". (Abu Dawud)

ABSTAINING FROM MISGUIDED GROUPS

  1. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) clearly warned his Ummah to completely abstain from joining in the gatherings of or listening to the words of any of the other misguided groups that will appear amongst the Muslims, whose beliefs will contradict the beliefs of the largest group of Muslims.
     

  2. The beliefs of the largest group of Muslims will be in accordance with the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the beliefs of the Sahaba and the Salf-e-Saliheen.
     

  3. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "In the period prior to the Day of Judgement, false and deceitful groups will emerge. They will say things to you, which neither you nor your forefathers will have ever heard before. Stay away from these deceitful people and do not let them come near you! Do not be misguided by them and do not let them cause strife amongst you!" (Sahih Muslim)

DIVISIONS IN THE UMMAH

  1. The concept of the Muslim nation separating into 73 sects, is taken from authentic Ahadith such as the following related by Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu): "The Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: 'The Jews separated into 71 sects, and the Christians into 72, and my nation will divide into 73 sects.'" (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
     

  2. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Seventy-two (of the 73 sects of the Muslim nation) will be in the fire, and only one will be in Paradise; it is the Jama'ah (i.e. Ahle Sunnah Wa Jamaah)." (Abi Dawud, Ad-Darimi, Ahmad)
     

  3. There is another narration which states: "The Companions asked: 'Which sect will triumph (i.e. achieve salvation)?' The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) replied: 'The sect which adheres to that (set of beliefs and practices) which I and my Companions adhere to.'"
     

  4. It should be clear from these Ahadith that the one sect, out of the 73, which is to gain salvation, is the Ahle Sunnah Wa Jamaah, the only segment of the Muslim community which adheres to that which the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his Companions (radi Allahu anhum) adhered to.

OPINION OF GREAT SCHOLARS AND SAINTS

  1. Ghousal Azam, Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (radi allahu anhu) states: "There are 73 groups as foretold by Sayyiduna Rasoolallah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and (bear in mind that), the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat was the rightful group". (Ghunyatut Taalibeen)
     

  2. Imam Ghazzali (radi Allahu anhu) writes: "The Ahle Sunnat Wal Jammat is the successful Firqah (group) and it is this Firqa which weighs or determines its thoughts and its according to the scales of the Holy Quran". (Mujarribaate Imam Ghazal)
     

  3. Hazrat Sha Wali'ullah Muhaddith Dehlawi (radi Allahu anhu) states: "As Rasoolallah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated, follow this 'Sawad-e-Azam', and when the four Madhabs are within the Sawad-e-Azam then the following of any one of them, is followance of the Sawad-e-Azam. Therefore, refuting any one of them is refuting the Sawad-e-Azam". (Aqdul Jayyad)
     

  4. Imam Sufyan Souri (radi Allahu anhu) states: "By Sawad-e-Azam is meant those who are called the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat". (Al Mizaanul Qubra)
     

  5. Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi (radi Allahu anhu) states in his book "Fatawa Azeezi" (Vol. 2, pg. 4) that: "The various parts of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat in Aqaa'id such as the Ash'ariya, the Maaturadi, in Fiqh such as the Hanifa, the Shafi'i, the Hambali, in Tassawwaf such as the Qaaderi, the Chisti, Naqshabandi, the Suhurwardi, this servant considers all of them to be the truth".
     

  6. Imam Rabbani, Mujaddid Alif Thaani (radi allahu anhu) states in the second chapter, page 67 of his "Maktubaat Shareef" that: "The way of salvation is followance of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat. May Almighty Allah Ta'ala bestow blessings upon the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat, in their speech, in their actions, laws, for this is the successful group. Besides this, all other groups have become victims of deception. Today, nobody realises how much these misled groups will be punished, however, on the Day of Qiyamah this secret will become apparent. Even though at that time this knowledge will be of no benefit to the misled."

Following of the Imams 

  1. After the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the Sahaba-e-Kiraam and the Taabi'in, the most excellent are the four Imams of the Ahle Sunnat Wa Jamaat. They are such great Imaams that they are known as "Mujtahideen Fi Shara�". They are Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa, Imam Maalik, Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhum).
     

  2. Taqleed means to follow one of the four Imaams of religion concerning the commandments of Islamic Law (Shari�ah).
     

  3. Today, Muslims throughout the world follow the Taqleed of these four Imaams. In the Masa'ile Furoo'iya, there is no other fourth Madhab. The difference of opinion of the four Imaams is only in the laws of Furoo' (actions) and not in beliefs (Aqaa'id).
     

  4. The followers of the four Madhabs are commonly known as Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i and Hambali.
     

  5. It is necessary (Waajib) to follow one of them, eg. to perform Salaah, or perform Saum, Zakaah, etc. as per what they have prescribed. This is known as Taqleed Shakhshi.
     

  6. These Imams have not made a rule on their own accord but have explained the meaning of the Holy Quran and Hadith, which a normal person or even an Alim could not understand. Therefore, to follow these Imaams is really following the Holy Quran and Hadith.
     

  7. Whoever follows one Imaam cannot follow another Imaam, for example, to follow some rules of one Imaam and other rules of another Imaam is not allowed. It is necessary to firmly follow only one Imaam.
     

  8. A person is not allowed to change from one Imaam to another, e.g. to become a Hanafi after following the Shafi�i way. You have to follow your Imaam and continue following him.
     

  9. It is also a joint agreement by all Ulema that you cannot follow another Imaam or a Mujtahid (religious director) except for one of these four Imaams.
     

  10. The following verses are proofs from the Holy Quran on Taqleed:
     

    1. The Holy Quran says: "Guide us on the Right Path, the Path of those on whom you have showered blessing". (Surah Fateha: 5) The verse may be taken as the argument in favour of Absolute (Mutlaq) Taqleed as well as the Taqleed of Mujtahids. Those on the Right Path are the Mufassirin (Commentators of Quran), Muhaddiseen (Scholars of the Ahadith), Jurists, Awliya Allah, Ghaus, Qutub, Abdal, etc. They were all Muqallids proving there by that Taqleed is the Right Path.
       

    2. The Holy Quran says: "Allah does not put burden on a person which he cannot bear." (Surah Baqarah: 286) This verse shows that Allah does not cause hardships to a man which he cannot endure. It means that the man who is incapable of Ijtihad, is unable to extract problems (masail) from the Qur'an as it amounts to over-burdening him if he is restrained from Taqleed and to expect him to derive problems from the Qur'an is not justifiable.
       

    3. The Holy Quran says: "And the first and foremost among the Muhajireen and Ansar and those who followed them with good intentions these are those with whom Allah was pleased and they were pleased with Allah." (Surah Tauba: 100) It means that Almighty Allah is pleased with those who followed the footstepe of the Muhajirs and the Ansar. This is nothing but Taqleed.
       

    4. The Holy Quran says: "Obey Allah the Almighty and obey the Holy Prophet and those who wield authority in the land." (Surah Nisa: 59) In thise verse there is the command to obey Almighty Allah (Holy Quran) the Holy Prophet (Hadith), the person holding authority to command the Ulama versed in Fiqah (Jurisprudence) and Istimbat (Knowledge of deriving problem from the Quran and Hadith).
       

    5. The Holy Quran says: "Ask (enquire) from the persons of learning if you do not know." (Surah Nahal: 43) The verse points to seeking advice and knowledge from the persons of learning if the common men do not know the real meaning or nature of any command. The men of learning explicitly refer to the Mujtahids.
       

    6. The Holy Quran says: "And follow the man who leads (people) unto Me." (Surah Luqman: 15) The verse indicates that the following (Taqleed) should be done of those persons who have devoted themselves to Almighty Allah. Here there is no restriction on the nature of matters in which guidance is needed.
       

    7. The Holy Quran says: "And those who say: O our Lord! Provide us the coolness of our eyes from our wives and children and make us the leader of the right ous people." (Surah al-Furqan: 25) The verse also demands that the Taqleed or following the men of Almighty Allah is on obligation.

Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa

 

Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu's) full name was Numan bin Thaabit bin Zuta bin Mah. He was born in Kufa in Iraq in 80 A.H. He belonged to the pious period of the Taabi'ins (Successors of the Sahabas).

DIVINE MISSION

It is stated in a Hadith Shareef which Imam al-Harizmi reported from Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (radi Allahu anhumA) that Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Among my Ummah, there will come a man called Abu Hanifa. On the Day of Resurrection, he will be the light of my Ummah." Another Hadith Shareef states: "In every century, a number of my Ummah will attain to high grades. Abu Hanifa will be the highest of his time." These two Ahadith are recorded in "Durr al-Mukhtar."

EARLY LIFE

While still in his youth, he met great Sahaba like Sayyiduna Anas bin Maalik, Sayyiduna Sahl bin Saad and Sayyiduna Abul Tufail Amir bin Wathilah (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in). Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) was first brought up as a trader, but soon started taking deep interest in Islamic learning.

EDUCATION

He attended the lectures of Sayyiduna Hammad Basri (radi Allah anhu) in Fiqh and then began to study the Hadith. He learnt under great scholars in Kufa. In Basrah he studied under two great Taabi'ie scholars who had learnt Hadith under the Sahaba.

In Makkatul Mukarammah and Madinatul Munawwarah, he learnt under Sayyiduna Ata bin Abi Rabah and Sayyiduna Ikramah (radi Allahu anhuma). In fact, Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) had numerous teachers. Some historians say that he learnt Hadith from about 4 000 scholars.

Some of his famous teachers were: Sayyiduna Imam Baaqir, Sayyiduna Imam Jafer Saadiq, Sayyiduna Ali, Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah, Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar, Sayyiduna Aqabah bin Umar, Sayyiduna Safwaan, Sayyiduna Jabir and Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).

AS A TEACHER

When his teacher, Sayyiduna Hammad Basri (radi Allahu anhu) passed away, Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) was 40 years old and he began teaching. He became very famous and travelled many places. Students from all over the Muslim world came to him to listen to his lectures, interviews and debates. Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) also learnt under him.

When he was 56 years old, Caliph Mansur came to power after the Ummayad dynasty was overthrown by the Abbasids in 132 A.H. Since Imam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) opposed the Caliph's ruthless killing of the Ahle Bait, he was arrested. The Caliph offered the Imam the post of a Qaadi (Judge), but he refused. The Caliph Mansur had him beaten with a stick 30 strokes. His feet bled. Caliph Mansur repented and offered Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) 30,000 pieces of silver. The great Imam refused once more. He was imprisoned again and thrashed 10 more strokes every day.

PASSES AWAY

In the Month of Rajab 150 A.H., Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) passed away while in Salaah. He had been poisoned by the orders of Caliph Mansur. His Janaza Salaah was performed six times and each time 50 000 people took part. People continued to come and pray for him for 20 days after he was buried. He was 70 years old.

In 459 A.H. a Mazaar (Tomb) was built for him by the Seljuki ruler Alp Arsalan. He lies buried in a Tomb situated near Baghdad in Iraq.

STUDENTS

Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) left behind about 980 students. The most famous among them being:

a. Sayyiduna Qadi Abu Yusuf (radi Allahu anhu)

b. Sayyiduna Imam Muhammed (radi Allahu anhu)

c. Sayyiduna Imam Zufur (radi Allahu anhu)

PERSONALITY

Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) earned his living by trading. Every Friday, he distributed 20 gold coins to the poor for his parents soul. For 40 years Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) performed the Fajr Salaah with the Wudu that he made for the Esha Salaah (ie. he did not sleep after the night prayer). He performed Hajj 55 times. He used to recite the entire Holy Koran once every day and once every night. Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) had so much of Taqwa (Piety) that for 30 years he fasted every day (except for the 5 forbidden days). He often read the Holy Koran in one rakaah or two. He did not accept any presents from anyone. He wore clothes like those of the poor. Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) once said: "I laughed once in my life and I regret it." He talked little and thought much. It is said that at the place where his soul was taken, he read the Holy Koran 7,000 times.

Imam Maalik  

 

Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) was born in 93 A.H. He was born in the period of the Ummayyad Dynasty. His full name is Maalik bin Anas.

EDUCATION

Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu's) grandfather and uncle were great scholars of Hadith. Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) learnt Ahadith from his uncle, Sayyiduna Abu Suhail Nafi (radi Allahu anhu). The Imam was a very keen scholar from his childhood days.

TEACHERS

Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) had many illustrious teachers. Most of them were great Taabi'i scholars who learnt under the Sahaba. Some of his teachers used to teach in Masjidun Nabawi. He learnt how to read the Holy Koran from Sayyiduna Abu Radim Nafi Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu).

He also learnt Hadith under Sayyiduna Nafi, Sayyiduna Jafer Saadiq, Sayyiduna Mohammed bin Yahya Ansaari, Sayyiduna Abu Haashim Salmah, Sayyiduna Yahya bin Said and Sayyiduna Hishaam bin Urwah (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).

HIS PUPILS

Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu's) fame spread far and wide and many great scholars sat in his company learning Ahadith and other Islamic legal issues. Some 1300 scholars sat at his feet. They copied the "MUWATTA" from him. The "Muwatta" is a collection of Ahadith by Imam Maalik (radi Allah anhu). Many of his pupils copied the Muwatta, the famous among them being: Sayyiduna Yahya bin Yahya Al Masmudi, Sayyiduna ibn Wahab Abu Mohammed Abdullah and Sayyiduna Abi Abdullah Abdur Rahman Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).

AS A TEACHER

Even Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu), his teacher, held Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) in great regard and respect and should sit in his study circle. Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) liked his students to read aloud while he listened. He used to sit on a high chair with students all around taking notes.

AS A MUHADDITH AND A JURIST

He was a great "Muhaddith" (A Scholar of Hadith). He was very careful in selecting Hadith, and after examining them thoroughly used to record it in his Muwatta.

As a Jurist, he was not afraid of giving a "Fatawa" (Legal Islamic Ruling) even if it was against the Caliph. He was once flogged for doing so.

PASSES AWAY

He passed away on the 11th of Rabi-ul-Awwal in the year 179 A.H. He was 86 years old. Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) is buried in Janatul Baqi in Madinatul Munawwarah.

He never wore shoes whilst in Madinatul Munawwarah. He never sat on a horse or used the toilets in this blessed city. He always went out of the city to relieve himself. He used to kiss the old buildings and the remains of old foundations, saying that Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) may have walked by, touched it or saw it. Such was his adoration for Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

IMAM SHAAFEE  

 

Mohammed bin Idris Al Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu) famously known as Imam Shaafa'ee was born in 150 A.H. and belonged to the Quraish tribe.

EARLY LIFE

When he was 10 years old, he came to Makkatul Mukarramah from Palestine where he grew up. He was very intelligent and had an excellent memory. He memorized the entire Holy Koran at the age of 7. By the age of 15, he had memorized the entire Muwatta of Imam Maalik (radi Allahu anhu). Before the age of 20, he studied Islamic Jurisprudence under the Mufti of Makkatul Mukarramah, Sayyiduna Muslim bin Khalil al Zanji and also Sayyiduna Sufyaan bin Uyayana (radi Allahu anhuma). Imam Maalik bin Anas (radi Allahu anhu) was also his teacher.

IN IRAQ

When the Governor of Iraq visited Madinatul Munawwarah, he was so impressed by Imam Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu) that he persuaded him to become an Administrator. As Imam Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu) was in conflict with the Government officials, he was deported to Iraq and brought in front of Haroun Rasheed who was very impressed with Imam Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu).

He now studied Islamic Jurisprudence under Imam Mohammed Ash Shaybaani (radi Allahu anhu), who was the student of Imam Abu Yusuf (radi Allahu anhu), who was the student of Imam A'zam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu). Thus, Imam Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu) became a master of both the Hanafi and Shaafa'ee School of Fiqh.

IN EGYPT

On his way to Egypt, he lectured in Makkatul Mukarramah in the Haram Shareef. Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu), who was studying at the time in Makkatul Mukarramah found great benefit from these lectures. Imam Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu) then went to Baghdad where he spent 3 or 4 years and finally went to Egypt. He was now 50 years old.

In Egypt, scholars from all over the world came to study at his feet. His famous pupils were Sayyiduna Rabi bin Sulayman, Sayyiduna Abu Yacoob Al Ruwayta and Sayyiduna Abu Ebraheem bin Yahya Al Muzani (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).

HIS WORKS

"Kitaabul Umm" and "Ar Risaalah" are the two famous books on Islamic Fiqh written by him.

PASSES AWAY

Some reports say that he was injured seriously by a person called Fityan, while other reports mention that he passed away through natural illness on the last day of Rajab in the year 204 A.H.in Egypt. Maalik Al Kaamil, the Ayyubid Sultan, built a Mazaar for him in 608 A.H.

  Imam Ahmed  Hambal

 

Imam Abu Abdullah Ahmed bin Mohammed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu) was born in Marw on the 20th of Rabi-ul-Awwal 164 A.H.

EARLY LIFE

His father, Sayyiduna Mohammed (radi Allahu anhu) was a warrior (Mujaahid) and lived in Basrah, Iraq. Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu) was a very intelligent child, keenly interested in furthering his Islamic education. At the age of 16, he began studying Hadith literature. It is said that he learnt almost a million Ahadith by heart. He became a famous Jurist.

HIS TEACHERS

Some of his teachers were Imam Shaafa'ee, Sayyiduna Bishar bin Al Mufaddal, Sayyiduna Ismail bin Ulayyah, Sayyiduna Jarir bin Abdul Hamid and Sayyiduna Yahya bin Said (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).

The great compilers of Ahadith, Imam Bukhaari and Imam Muslim (radi Allahu anhuma), including his teacher, Imam Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu), have also reported Hadith from him. Imam Shaafa'ee (radi Allahu anhu), in spite of being the most learned in his time, used to refer to Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu) about certain Ahadith.

HIS PUPILS

Amongst his pupils, the most famous were Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Al Alhram, Sayyiduna Hambal bin Ishaaq and Sayyiduna Abul Qasim Al Baghwi (radi Allahu anhumul ajma'in).

HIS PIETY

Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu) was a very pious scholar who devoted all his life in the Science of Ahadith and Fiqh. He refused to eat in anyone's house who held a Governmental post. Being extremely poor with no food to eat at times, he used to still refuse to accept charity saying that he had full faith in Almighty Allah.

HIS WORKS

The most famous among his books are: Kitaabul A'maal, Kitaabut Tafseer, Kitaabul Naasikh wal Mansookh, Kitaabul Zahid, Kitaabul Masaa'il, Kitaabul Fadaa'il and Kitaabul Mansiq.

His most famous book is his "MUSNAD", a kitab in which he collected about 50 000 to 70 000 Ahadith.

IMPRISONMENT

Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu), in the later years of his life, was imprisoned and tortured by the ruthless rulers who went against him due to their un-Islamic beliefs and practises. Caliph Mutasim billah forced the Imam to accept the beliefs of the "Mu'tazalis" (a corrupt sect), but he refused, and was beaten to such a degree that his joints were dislocated. He was kept in heavy chains for 30 months in a prison in Baghdad. He still refused to accept the beliefs of the corrupt Mu'tazali Sect and was again beaten till he fell unconscious.

PASSES AWAY

On the 25th of Ramadaan in the year 221 A.H., Caliph Mutasim, in fear of the sin he committed, repented and set the Imam free. Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu) forgave all the people except the Mutazalis. He passed away in the year 241 A.H.

Shariah Islamic Law  

Title Of Books

Shariah IslamicLaw

Difference Ladie & Men pray

Ghusl Bath

Duaa_Wazaaif

Laws bath

Islamic Dressing

Wudu

Hadiths Practical Living

Amounts Rakah

Qurban

Importance Prayer

Zakat

Stand Iqaamat

Message ofHajj

Salatul Tasbih

Ramdhan

Benefits Duaa

Jewels Quran

Shariah Islamic Law

Shariah, or Islamic law, is the centerpiece and backbone of Islam. It's principles are based on the Qur’an & Sunnah.

The rules of Islamic law provides all that which is necessary for a person's spiritual and physical well-being. As a Muslim one is obliged to follow the Shariah with great care. We have included the Shariah within our site to help our Disciples perform their obligatory duties with correct due care and attention.

Islamic law is divided into two main section

Acts of worship

Human interaction

Principle Beliefs

Financial transactions

Purification (Wudu)

Endowments

Prayer (Salah)

Laws of inheritance

Fasting in Ramadhan (Sawm)

Marriage, divorce, death and child care

Charity (Zakah)

Food and Drink

Pilgrimage (Hajj)

Penal punishments

 

Warfare and peace

 

Judicial matters

Fiqh, literally understanding of details, expands on the basic principles set out in the Shariah. There are four schools of fiqh named after the exceptional scholars who derived the finer details, all of which conform with the Qur'an & Sunnah.

  1. Hanafi : Named after Imam Abu Hanifa, 702-767 CE

  2. Hanbali: Named after Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal 778-855 CE

  3. Maliki: Named after Imam Malik ibn Anas, 717-801 CE

  4. Shafi: Named after Imam Muhammad Idris al-Shafi, 769-820 CE

It should be noted that Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi' and Imam ibn Hanbal all embraced Sufism, tasawwuf. It has been narrated from Imam Malik that:

"'He who practices sufism without learning the shariah corrupts his faith, while he who learns Shariah without practicing sufism corrupts himself. Only he who combines the two reaches his goal."

FOLLOW ONE OF THE FOUR IMAMS
It is Wajib to follow ONE of the four Imams of fiqh. This is known as Taqleed Shakhshi. It should be noted that one cannot mix & match the various rules and should only follow the rulings of any one Imam.
The Islamic Law listed on this site has been taken from "Rules of Islamic Law" by Moulana Hadrat Sardar Ahmad

What makes Ghusl Fard?

On five occasions the Ghusl is Fard.

1) Release of sperm with pleasure. If jumped from a higher place or lifted heavier stuff which caused sperm to discharge, Ghusl is not wajib but will break the Wazoo.

2) Wet dream with semen discharge.

3) When ever the tip of man's private part (mushroom) enters woman's private part.(Even with intention or without intention)

4) Haiz (monthly period for women)

5) Nafaas ( The release of blood after a woman gives birth)

Fards in Ghusl.Bath

There are three fards in Ghusl.

1) To wash mouth with water as it should reach all the parts internally. From lips to the base of throat. If not fasting gargle. If there is any thing stuck in between teeth such as a piece of meat, paan, beetle nut; it should be removed before Ghusl or the Ghusl will not be completed.

2) To wash inside of nose with water. Water should be pulled hard enough all the way to the soft part of the base of nose. If there is any dry phlegm (hard ratoobat) inside the nose it must be cleaned and if a the nose is pierced water should be forced into the hole or the Ghusl will not be completed.

3) To wash the body once from head till the bottom of feet. The water must pour over body. Every strand (hair) and skin of the body must get wet. Even if a single strand or a small portion of skin is not washed the Ghusl will not be completed.

 

Sunnats in Ghusl.

1) To perform a ghusl in the sunnat, we must first wash both of our hands and privates parts even if they may be clean, then if there any najasat (impurity) on our body, we must wash it away.

2) We must perform a complete ablution.

3) While washing our face we must intend to perform a ghusl.

4) If water will not accumulate under our feet; we must wash our feet, too.

5) We must pour water on our entire body three times. When you do this, we must pour it on our head three times first, then on our right shoulder three times and then on the left shoulder three times. Each time the part on which we pour water must become completely wet. We must also rub it gently, during the first pouring.

6) In a ghusl, it is permissible to pour the water on the limb so as to make it flow onto another limb, which, in this case, will be cleaned, too. For in a ghusl the whole body is counted as a one limb. If in performing an ablution the water poured on one limb moistens another limb, the second limb will not be considered to have been washed.

7) When a ghusl is completed it is makruh (things which our Prophet did not like) to perform an ablution. But it will become necessary to perform an ablution again if it is broken while making a ghusl.

The Laws & Conditions of

Ghusal (Bath)

 

Ghusal is a means of preparing one�s self for Ibaadat (Worship of Allah). Ghusal is a necessity for a true Muslim. The importance of Ghusal has been mentioned in both the Holy Quran and in the Ahadith. The verse of the Holy Quran that commanded Ghusal as a Fardh Action was revealed in the Holy City of Makkah. Almighty Allah commands in the Holy Quran that �if you are in an impure state, then purify yourself well.� Almighty Allah is Pure and Allah loves all that which is pure. It is on the authority of Hazrat Abu Qatadah (radi Allahu anhu) that The Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, �Cleanliness is half your Imaan.�  

There are five factors that make Ghusal Fardh (obligatory) on a person. The first three that we have enlisted are for both males and females, while the last two are only for females. These are:-

  1. Wet dream causes Ghusal to become Fardh.
     

  2. Sexual intercourse will make Ghusal Fardh on both persons.
     

  3. Ejaculation caused due to lust makes Ghusal Fardh.
     

  4. Ghusal is Fardh on women on termination of her menstrual periods.
     

  5. Ghusal is also Fardh on a female after Nifaas (puerperal haemorrhage).

 

There are also three actions in Ghusal that are Fardh. These are:-

  1. To rinse the mouth thoroughly.
     

  2. To clean the nostrils thoroughly.
     

  3. To wash the entire body in such a manner that not even an area equal to a strand of hair be left dry. If this is not done properly, then Ghusal will not be done.

Even though one may be in a pure state, there are certain instances where it is either desirable (Mustahab) of Sunnah to make Ghusal.

It is Sunnah to perform Ghusl for the following:-

  1. For the Jummah Salaah.
     

  2. For Eid Salaahs.
     

  3. On the day of Arafaat (9th Zil-Hajj - Day of Hajj).
     

  4. Before tying one�s Ihraam.

 

It is Mustahab to perform Ghusl for the following:-

  1. When waiting in Arafaat and Muzdalifa.
     

  2. When visiting the Holy Haram (Kaaba).
     

  3. Before visiting the Blessed Tomb of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
     

  4. Before entering Mina.
     

  5. Before hitting the Jamraah.
     

  6. On the eve of the Birth of Holy Prophet Muhammad  (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
     

  7. For Lailatul Qadr.
     

  8. For  Lailatul Baraat.
     

  9. For Lailatul Me'raaj.
     

  10. On the eve of Eid.
     

  11. On the eve of Arafaah.
     

  12. On the eve and day of Aashurah  (10th Muharram).
     

  13. Before wearing new clothes.
     

  14. Before making Tauba (repenting) from one�s sins.
     

  15. For Salaatul Istisqaa.
     

  16. For Namaaz at the time of eclipse.
     

  17. Before teaching the Holy Quran and Ahadith.
     

  18. After bathing the deceased.
     

  19. After coming out of an unconscious state.
     

  20. Before and after a journey.
     

  21. After Istihaaza (Sickness of women).
     

  22. On recovering from illness.
     

  23. At the time of fear.
     

  24. During a storm.
     

  25. Before a wedding or any happy occasion.
     

  26. When visiting Holy Places such as Mazaars, etc.
     

  27. When going to meet a learned Scholar of Islam.
     

With the EXCEPTION of the above mentioned, it is also a good habit to bathe twice daily, in the morning on awakening and at night before going to bed.  

The Sunnah method of Ghusal: One should first make Niyyah in the heart of Ghusal to gain purification from impurities. Both hands should then be washed till the wrist. The pubic areas should then be washed thoroughly removing any impurities. Impurities on any other portion of the body should be washed. One should then perform Wudhu. The entire body should then be washed thoroughly. Water must then be poured thrice over the right shoulder, then thrice over the left shoulder, thrice over the head, and then thrice over the entire body. One must make sure that the water passes over the body properly not leaving any dry spots. Thereafter, it is preferable for the feet to be washed after coming out of the bathroom. After making Ghusal in this way, one may read the Holy Quran or perform Salaah. There is no need to repeat Wudhu unless Wudhu becomes nullified (breaks). When making Ghusal, one is not allowed to read anything or talk unnecessarily.  

Dear Friends! We should be clean and pure at all times, for none knows when death will come. May Almighty Allah keep us amongst the pure. Aameen.

Wudu

Fards in Wuzoo

THERE ARE FOUR FARA'ID (MANDATORY ACTS) IN AN ABLUTION.

1-To wash the face once.

2-To wash the two arms together with the elbows once.

3-To apply masah on the one-fourth of the head, that is, to rub a wet hand softly on it.

4-To wash the feet, together with the ankle-bones on the side once.

 

Sunnats in Ablution

There are eighteen Sunnats in an ablution.

1-To recite "Bismillah" before the making the ablution.

2-To wash the hands including the wrists three times.

3-To rinse the mouth three times by using new water each time. This is called madmada.

4-To wash both nostrils three times, taking fresh water each time. This is called istinshaq.

5-To wet the invisible parts of the skin under the eyebrows, the beard and the mustache. It is fard to wash their exterior surfaces. If the hairs are scarce and the skin can be seen, it will be fard to wet and wash the skin.

6-To wet the section under the two eyebrows when washing the face.

7-To apply the masah on the hanging part of the beard.

8-To comb (taklil) the hanging part of the beard with the wetted fingers of the right hands.

9-To rub and clean the teeth with something.

10-To apply masah (to wipe) both ears once.

11-to apply masah on the neck once with three adjacent fingers of both hands.

12-to wash (takhlil ) between the fingers and the toes, the little fingers of the left hand is inserted between the toes from under them in successions,beginning with the little toe of the right foot and, after finishing with the right foot, carrying on with big toe of the foot.

13-To apply masah on the whole head once.

14-To wash every limb three times which is to be washed. At each washing every part of the limb must be moistened. It is sunnat not to pour water three times but to wash it completely three times. It is makruh to wash more than three times.

15-To intend through the heart to get reward when beginning the Wudu.

16-Tartib. In other words, to wash the two hands, the mouth, the nostrils, the face, the arms, then apply masah on the head, and not to change this order.

17-Dalk, to rub the limbs washed.

18-Muwalat, to wash the limbs one right after another quickly.

 

Mustahabbats in Ablution

There are twenty-eight twenty-eight mustahabbats in an ablution.

In this context adab means something which causes blessings when done but incurs no sin if committed.

1- To make an ablution before it is time for Salaat.

2-If the private parts have not been smeared with najasat (impurity); it is an adab to wash them with water. If the najasat (impurity) is less than one dirham [which is equal to one mithqal: four grams and eighty centigrams], it is sunnat to wash. If one has been smeared with one dirham of it, it is wajib, and if more than that it is fard to wash.

3-To wipe oneself dry with a piece of cloth after washing. If there is no cloth one must wipe with one's hand.

4-To cover oneself right after the cleaning is completed.

5-Not to ask for help from anybody, but to perform the ablution by oneself. If one pours water for one without being asked, it will be permissible.

6-To turn towards the qibla when making an ablution.

7-Not to talk while making an ablution.

8-To recite the kalmia-i-shahadat while washing each limb.

9-To recite the prescribed prayers (du'a) of ablution.

10-To put water in the mouth with the right hand.

11-To put water in the nose with the right and to clean the nose with the left hand.

12-When washing the mouth, rinse it if not fasting.

13-When washing the nostrils, to draw the water almost up to the bone.

14-When applying masah on the ears, insert each little finger into each earhole, respectively.

15-To use the little finger of the left hand when washing between the toes when inserting from the lower sides of them.

16-To shift the ring when washing the hands. It is necessary and fard to shift a tight ring.

17-Not to waste water though it may be plentiful.

18-Not to use little water so as to appear rubbing with oil. During each the three washing, at least two drops of water must fall from the place washed.

19-After using a container for ablution, to leave the container full of water so that the other may use it.

20-To recite the prayer (du'a ) "ALLAHUMMAJ'ALNI MINATTAWWABIN….."after or during the ablution.

21-To make an ablution though one has an ablution. In other words, after performing one namaz, renew your ablution for the next namaz.

22-To clean the inner corner of the eyes and clear away the dried mucus in the eyelids when washing the face.

23-When washing the face, the arms and the feet, wash a little more than the compulsory amount. When washing the arms, we must fill our palm with water and then pour it towards the elbow.

24-When performing an ablution, do not let the water used splash back on the body, the cloths, etc.

25-To wash the face with both hands.

26-To put the water container on the right side. While performing an ablution.

27-When washing the foot, start from the fingers.

28-To perform two rak'at [cycle] salaat after an ablution, which is called "THAHEEYA-TUL-WUDU".

 

Prohibitions in Wazoo

There are ten prohibitions in performing an ablution

1-When relieving one or urinating in the toilet or outdoors, one should not turn one's front or back towards the Qibla. It is makruh also to stretch one's feet towards the Qibla or the Quran. If the Quran is above one it will not be makruh.

2-It is haram to open one's private parts near someone in order to make taharat.

3-One should not make taharat with one's right hand.

4-When there is no water, it is makruh to make taharat (to clean oneself ) with food products, manure,bones,animals food,coal,someone else's property,reeds,leaves. Instead of that should have "Tayammum".

5-One must not spit or throw mucus into the pool where one makes an ablution.

6-One should not wash one's limbs of ablution much more or less than the prescribed limit, nor wash them more or less than three times.

7-While washing the face, one must not splash the water on one's face, but pour it from the upper forehead downwards.

8-One must not blow on or over the surface of the water.

9-One must not close one's mouth and eyes tightly. If even a tiny part of the outward part of the lips or the eyelids is left dry, the ablution will not be acceptable.

10-One must not make masah on one's head, ears or neck more than once after moistening the hands each time. But it can be repeated with moistening the hands again.

Amounts of Rakah for each time

Fajr:

i) First two rakat Sunnat Mokadda

ii) Two rakat Fard

 

Zuhr:

i) Four rakat Sunnat Mokadda

ii) Four rakat Fard

iii) Two rakat sunnat Mokadda

iv) Two rakat Nafl (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

 

Asr:

i) Four rakat sunnat ghair mokadda (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

ii) Four rakat Fard

 

Maghrib

i) Three rakat Fard

ii) Two rakat Sunnat Mokadda

iii) Two rakat nafl (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

 

Isha:

i) Four rakat sunnat e Ghair Mokadda (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

ii) Four rakat Fard

iii) Two Rakat Sunnat Mokadda

iv) Two rakat Nafil (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

v) Three rakat Wajib

vi) Two rakat Nafil (Optional but spiritually beneficial)

The Importance of Namaz (Prayer) 

Namaaz is the soul of all our Ibaadaat (prayers). The Pious predecessors have stated that if a person does not perform his Salaah, then no other Ibaadat performed by him or her is accepted and if a person loves Namaaz and is punctual in his Namaaz then Allah Willing, his or her wrongs will all be forgiven. We should thus try our best to perform our Namaaz and also show strictness in our homes so that our families may also perform their Salaah.  

Hazrat Esa (alaihis salaam) once passed by a river. There he saw a beautiful and elegant looking bird lying in a puddle of mud and dirt. The bird's entire body was covered with filth. He then noticed this bird come out of the mud and then dive into the river until it was clean and beautiful again. Thereafter, the bird once again flew into the dirt and mud and became covered with filth. Once more, the bird left the mud and flew into the river again until it was clean and beautiful again. This astonishing act was repeated five times. Hazrat Esa (alaihis salaam) began to wonder as to the reason for this strange sequence of events. Sayyiduna Jibraeel?e?Amin (alaihis salaam) descended and told him: �This bird is equal to a human from the Ummah of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Each time he sins he becomes unclean, and when he performs his Salaah, then Almighty Allah purifies him just like the mud and dirt that was cleansed from the bird�.  

It has been narrated that when a persons Namaaz is accepted, then as a reward Almighty Allah creates an Angel that remains in Ruku and Sujood making Tasbeeh until the Day of Qiyamah. The Sawaab of all the Ibaadat of this Angel is recorded in the books of the Namaazi.  

It has been stated in authentic sources that on the Day of Qiyamah as the people will be passing over Pul-Siraat, which is thinner than a hair and sharper than a sword, there will be a group of people who will say that they are too scared to cross over the bridge. Sayyiduna Jibraeel (alaihis salaam) will ask them how they used to cross the oceans in the world. They will say that they did so with ships. On hearing their answer, the Musjids that they worshipped in will be brought and they will sit in these Musjids and pass safely over Pul-Siraat.  

It has been stated that on the Day of Qiyamah, will come in the form of white camels whose feet will be made from Amber, their necks from Saffron, their heads from musk, and their reigns from emeralds. Those who gave Azaan will be in front, the Imams of Musjids will guide them forward from behind and behind the Imaams will be the musallees who sincerely read Namaaz in Jamaat behind the Imaam. When the others will see this on the Day of Qiyamah they will enquire whether these people are Angels or Prophets. It will be said to them that they are neither. They will be told that such are the Ummah of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who were punctual in their Salaah.  

Dear Muslim brothers and sisters! Perform your Namaaz, for Namaaz will assist us in this world, in our graves, and on the Day of Qiyamah.

When to Stand up to Follow the Jamaat during the Iqaamat

  1. Some people say that it is not necessary to stand up during the time of Iqaamat when the Mukabbir says "Hayyalas Salaah" or "Hayyalal Falaah", rather one should stand at the beginning of the Iqaamat.
     

  2. It is the belief of the Ahle Sunnat Wa Jama�at that one should stand up only after the Mukabbir has uttered "Hayyalas Salaah" or "Hayyalal Falaah" and not at the beginning of the Iqaamat.
     

  3. The Ulama of Islam have explained the three different ways of standing up during the Iqaamah for the purpose of following the Jamaat (congregation). They are:
     

    1. When the Imam enters the Masjid from the side of Mihraab,
       

    2. When the Imam enters the Masjid from the back or from the sides, and
       

    3. When both the Imam and Muqtadis are present in the Masjid at the time of Iqaamah.
       

  4. As far as the first two methods (3.1 and 3.2) are concerned; no differences exist amongst any group.
     

    1. Allama Abu Bakr Bin Masood (radi Allahu anhu) writes in "Badai'us Sanaai": "If the Imam is outside the Masjid, the Muqtadis will not stand until the Imam does not arrive. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the front of the Safs (lines) and when the Muqtadis see the Imam, they should stand up because when Imam enters the Masjid, it is regarded as if he has reached the place of Imaamat. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the back of the Safs, according to correct saying, from whichever Saf that the Imam passes, the people of that Saf should stand up." (Kitaabus Salaat)
       

    1. Allama Zainuddin Ashaheer Ibn Nojaim (radi Allahu anhu), writes in "Bahrur Raa'iq": "If the Imam is not in the Mihraab, then the people of every Saf should stand when the Imam reaches them. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the front, the people should stand up when they see the Imam."
       

  1. When the Imam and the Muqtadis all are present in the Masjid, then it is Mustahab (recommended) for all of them to stand up for Jamaat when Mu'ezzin says "Hayyalas Salaah" or "Hayyalal Falah".
     

  2. The great Jurists and scholars of Islam have explained this issue in detail:-
     

    1. Allama Abu Bakr bin Masood (radi Allahu anhu) writes: "If the Imam and the Muqtadis are present in the Masjid, then it is Mustahab for all of them to stand when the Mu'ezzin says 'Hayyalal Falah'." (Badai'us Sanaai)
       

    2. It is mentioned in "Tanveerul Absaar": "If the Imam is near the Mihraab, then Imam and the Muqtadi should both stand up at the time of 'Hayyalal Falah'." (Kitaabus Salaat)
       

    3. Allama Shami (radi Allahu anhu) has given 13 references of authentic books that people should stand up at the time of "Hayyalas Salaah" or "Hayyalal Falah."
       

    4. It is mentioned in "Tabyinul Haqaa'iq": "When the Mu'ezzin says 'Hayyalal Falah' he in fact has commanded for Qiyaam (standing). Therefore, it is Mustahab to hurry towards it." (Kitaabus Salaat)
       

    5. It is mentioned in "Durar Sharah Ghorar": "Standing up is in that time when it is said 'Hayyalal Falah'. The meaning of 'Hayyalal Falah' is 'come, be attentive'. Therefore, it is Mustahab to hurry towards it." (Kitaabus Salaat)
       

    6. Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad said that people should stand in Safs when the Mu'ezzin says "Hayyalas Salaah". (Umdatul Qari Sharah Bukhari)
       

    7. Allama Ahmad Asqalaani (radi Allahu anhu) writes in "Irshaadus-sari Sharah Bukhari": "It is reported from Imam Abu Hanifah that people should stand at the time of 'Hayyalal Falah'."
       

  3. Thus, it has been made clear with many quotations of Fiqh and commentaries of Ahadith that when the Imam is near the Mihraab in the Masjid it is Mustahab to stand at the time of "Hayyalas Salaah" or "Hayyalal Falaah".
     

  4. If one stands up at the beginning of the Iqaamat, then it is Makrooh:
     

    1. Mullah Nizaamuddin (radi Allahu anhu) writes in "Fataawa Alamgiri", which is a very authentic Fatawa Kitaab in Hanafi Fiqah, that: "It is Makrooh (undesirable act in Shari'ah) to stand and wait. In fact, one should sit down and when the Mu'ezzin says 'Hayyalal Falah' then stand up."
       

    2. Allama Sayyed Ahmad Tahtaavi (radi Allahu anhu) writes: "When the Mu'ezzin starts the Iqaamat and a person entered the Masjid at that time, he should sit down. He must not stand and wait because it is Makrooh as it is mentioned in 'Muzmiraat' of Qahstaani. It is known from here that to stand in the beginning of Iqaamat is Makrooh, and many people are unaware of this fact". (At Tahaavi Ala Marraqiyil Falah)
       

    3. Mufti Shareeful Haq Amjadi, the Mufti of Jamia Ashrafiya Mubarakpur mentions 21 books of Hanafi Fiqah to prove that it is Makrooh to stand at Iqamaah, that it should be heard sitting and that people should stand at the time of "Hayyalas Salaah" or "Hayyalal Falah".
       

  5. Allama Abdur Rahmaan Al Jazeeri (radi Allahu anhu) writes: "According to Madhab Shaf'ee it is Sunnah to stand for Salaah when the Mu'ezzin completes the Iqaamah." (Kitaabul Fiqh Alal Mazahibil Arba) If a Shafi�i person stands in the beginning of the Iqaamah, then he loses the reward of the Sunnah.
     

  6. Some people say that it is difficult to straighten the Safs (lines) if people stand at "Hayyalas Salaah" or at "Hayyalal Falah", therefore, it is better to stand up in the beginning of the Iqaamat. In reply to this: Could the Sahabah, Taabi'een and great Jurists not understand this reason? In that period there were neither lines made in the Masjid nor were there carpets and mats. Nowadays, in every Masjid, all the necessary arrangements are made to keep the Safs straight. The reason for not having the Safs straight in good time is not that the people stand at the time of "Hayyalas Salaah". In fact, the real reason for not having the Safs straight in good time is that people come into the Masjid and sit here and there. When the Iqaamat begins, they hesitate to come in front quickly. This evil should be stopped.

Salatul Tasbih

For forgiveness of All Sins

Benefits of Salat-Ul-Tasbih

Our Beloved Prophet Mohammed (Sallallaho Alihiwassallam) said to his uncle (father’s brother) Sayyiduna Abbass (may Allah be pleased with him) Oh uncle shall I not give you Shall I not grant you Shall I not award you Shall I not do mercy on you When you do 10 things Allah will forgive your sins: of the future and of the past; new and old; those you have forgotten and those you did knowingly; big and small; hidden and revealed. Then he (Sallallaho Alihiwassallam) explained the taught the way to pray Salatul Tasbih and then said if you can pray this salah once a day, if you can not pray once a day then every Friday, and even if this is not possible then once a month and even if this is not possible then once a year and even if this is not possible then at least once in a lifetime (Abu’Dawood & Tirimzi)

 

How to perform Salatul Tasbih?

This salaat (namaz) is offered in four rakat at a time and can be read in any part of the day and night besides Zawal and Sunrise and Sunset makrooh times, keeping in mind the forbidden times for performing Salat (namaaz). But is is preferred before Zuhr (Fatawa Alamgeeri)

 

The Tasbih to be read in Salaat-Ul-Tasbeeh:

" Subhaan Allahi Wal Hamdulillahi Wa Laa ilaha illal Laahu Wallahu Akbar "

 

Method:

Goal is to recite above Tasbih 300 times in Four Rakah with the following method.

In the first rakaat, after reading Sana "Subhaana Kallahumma...", read the above tasbih 15 times.

Now recite Aaoz "Aoozubillah...", Bismillah "Bismillah...", Then read sura Fatiha and a Surah or minimum of three small Ayayhs then read the tasbih 10 times again.

Go to ruku saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar), after reciting "Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem" minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Ruku.

Saying "Samee Allahu Liman Hamidah Rabbana Lakal Hamdh" get up from ruku to qiyam position.

Now read the tasbih 10 times.

Go to Sajdah saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting "Subhaana Rabbiyal A'la" minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah.

Now go after first Sajdah go to Jalsa (sitting position) saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar). Sitting in Jalsa read tasbih 10 times.

Go to sajda again saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting "Subhaana Rabbiyal A'la" minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah again.

Get up to begin 2nd rakat saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar).

Do rakah #2 in same fashion, but before reading Bismillah "Bismillah...", and Surah Fatiha, read the tasbih 15 times. Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat.

After second Sajdah of Second Rakat sit in Qaidah Oola (first sitting) read Attahiyat, Durood and Dua then get up for 3rd rakaat without saying Salam.

Begin third Rakat, just like the first Rakat, with Sana "Subhaana Kallahumma...", read the above tasbih 15 times. Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat untill you sit for Qaidah Akihra (last sitting) after second sajdah of fourth Rakah.

In Qaidah Akihra Attahiyat, Durood, Dua finish Salah with Salam.

 

Special notes for Salat-Ul-Tasbih:

1) Do not count loudly. It will break Salah

2) Do not count on fingers or by holding a Bead Tasbih in hand. It is Makruh.

3) You may count by pressing the fingers as a reminder. For example if you are in Ruku. You me press pinky of your right hand first for the first count, then the finger next to it for second count, then the middle finger for third count, following this method untill you reach the pinky of left hand will give you an exact count of ten. Use the same method in Qayam, Sajdah and Jalsa.

4) If missed a count then make it up in the next posture. For example if forgot to recite Tasbih after Surah in Qayam. Then you may recite Tasbish 20 times instead of 10 in Rukuh after "Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem". Missed Tasbih cannot be recited in Qayam after ruku and Jalsa between Sajdah. If you missed the Tasbih in Ruku then recite 20 in the first Sajdah instead of the Qayam after rukuh. Similarly if missed the Tasbih in first Sajdah then do not make it up in Jalsa. Instead recite missed tasbih in the second Sajdah. If Tasbih has been missed in last sajdah of second or fourth Rakah then you can recite the missed ones before Attahiyat in Qaidah.

5) If you miss a wajib in Salah and have to do Sajdah Sahaw. You dont have to recite Tasbih in Sajdah sahoo, since the 300 count has been estalished. But if you had missed Tasbih in any of the postures and remeber it now. Then you may recite the missed Tasbih in Sajdah Sahaw now.

6) It is preferable to recite after Surah Fatiha Sura Takathuur in the first raka’, Surah Wal A’sr in the second raka’, Surah Kaferoon (qul ya aiyuhal Kafiroon) in the third and Surah Akhlas (Qul hu Allah-hu ahd) in the fourth raka’. If one does not remember these surah they can recite the ones they prefer.

May Allah accept this dua’ (supplication) for the sake of the trustworthy PROPHET MOHAMMED (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him).

Benefits of Duaa

Numan bin Basheer  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Duaa is ibadat." Then He  read this ayat . (Tirmizi, Abu Dawod, and Ibn-e-Majah)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "In the court of Allah, there is no greater thing than duaa" (Ibn-e-Majah)

Abdullah bin Umar  narrates from Rasool-Allah  ," Among whatever has been descended and whatever has not been descended Duaa is beneficial of all. Oh people of Allah! Assume Duaa a must for yourselves. (Tirmizi)

Abdullah bin Umar  from Rasool-Allah , "For whoever the door of duaa opened, for him the doors of mercy are opened. Whatever duaa is asked from Allah the best duaa is for well-being and safety among them." (Tirmizi)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Allah is extremely displeased with the person who doesn't do duaa to Allah". (Tirmizi)

Salman  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Your Rab is modest and kind. A person raise his hands in HIS court and HE leave them empty, Allah shies from it." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood)

Jabir  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Whoever does duaa to Allah, Allah fulfills his seeking or in exchange averts misfortune until the duaa is not related to sin or breaking some relation." (Tirmizi)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Do duaa to Allah with this confidence that HE will accept it and know this well that Allah doesn't accept the duaa done with a negligent and careless heart. (Tirmizi)

Salman Farsi  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Duaa turns away destiny and good deeds lengthen age. (Tirmizi)

Umar  narrates that, "Whenever Rasool-Allah  raised his hands for duaa He  did not put down them down until HE  took both hands over his face." (Tirmizi)

Aisha (Radi Allahu Anha) narrates that, "Rasool-Allah  liked duaas that were inclusive and he left the rest." (Abu Dawood)

Abdullah bin Umar  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Duaa for a person not present is accepted quickly by Allah." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Three duaas are such in which there is no doubt of their acceptance: 1) Father's duaa 2) Traveler's duaa 3) Duaa of the oppressed". (Timizi, Ibne Majah)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Three types of people's duaas are not rejected: 1) At the time of iftar the person who has fasted 2) Adil ruler's duaa 3) The duaa of the oppressed. Allah raises the duaa of the oppressed on the clouds and the doors of heaven are opened for it and Allah says, "Oath of MY Majesty and Honour! I will help and aid you. Even though if the help is after few days." (Tirmizi)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "When anyone of you does duaa then don't say "Oh Allah! Forgive me if you want", "Have mercy on me if you want", "Give me subsistence if you wish" rather believe completely that HE will do whatever HE wishes. Nobody can force HIM." (Bukhari)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Allah excepts the duaa of a person till the duaa is not related to sin or breaking of some relation and until he does not haste in that duaa. The people (May Allah be happy with them) asked, "Oh Rasool-Allah!  What is meant by haste?" He  replied, "That the person say "I did duaa again and again but my duaa wasn't accepted and afterwards he becomes hopeless and leaves the duaa. This is called haste." (Muslim)

Jabir  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Don't do Bad-duaa [against] yourself, your wealth, or for your children. May it be the moment of acceptance in the court of Allah and your Bad-duaa be accepted. (Muslim)

Boraidah  narrates that Rasool-Allah  heard a man performing duaa like so *1, so He  said, "He [the man] has performed duaa with the Ism-e-Azam and when Allah is asked through the Ism-e-Azam, Allah grants and when duaa is performed with it HE accepts it." (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood)

Asma binte Yazeed (Radi Allahu Anha) narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Ism-e-Azam is in these two ayahs and in the beginning of Ale-Imran . " (Tirmizi and Abu Dawood)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Saying is dearer to me than this world and all that is in it." (Mislim)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Whoever said hundred times in one day his sins are erased even if they are equal to the foam of the sea." (Muslim and Bukhari)

Abu Hurairah  narrates from Rasool-Allah , "Every Prophet had a special duaa which is accepted in the court of Allah. All Prophets were in quick in their duaas. On the day of Judgment, for the intercession of my Ummah, I have saved my duaa. My duaa will reach to every person in my ummah, who did not make any partners with Allah. (Muslim)

*1

Difference between Ladies and Men's Salah

Difference between Ladies and Men's Salah

 There are some differences between how women and men’s way of performing Salat.

1) Men raise there hands all the way to the ear for Takbeer while women raise their hands only up to their shoulders.

2) In Qayam (the standing posture) Men place their hands below Navel while women place their hands on their chest.

3) Men grasp their wrist while women do not. They only place right hand on the top of left with fingers intact together.

4 ) In Ruku (the bowing posture) Men’s back is horizontal while women suppose to bend their back only far enough to touch their knees. Looking from far it will look like a bow arc. They won’t flatten their back.

5 ) In Sajdah men’s back portion is raised from ground and hands apart from body and fingers of feet twisted while women suppose to be gathered in a way so that all their body parts are close together and abdomen placed over her thighs.Both feet and ankles sticking out to the right. Lower portion of back touching the ground.

6 ) During Jalsa and Qaida (sitting between Sajdah and during Attahyat) men sit on their left ankle and their right foot’s fingers are twisted while women sit on floor and their both ankles and feet sticking out towards right hand side.

These are the only differences between a Man’s Salat and a Woman’s Salat.

 

Method of praying Qaza Salahs Quickly

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 If someone have missed Salahs in their account. Either one time's or of many years, they must pray their Qaza as soon as possible. Salah is a Fard and not forgiven. On the day of judgement Salah will be the first thing asked about.

 For the people who have many years of missed Salahs. There is a way to pray them quickly. Following instructions have four exeptions and has all Fards and Wajibs for a complete Salat. Please pray your Qaza as soon as possible. Even of you could pray one days Qaza Salahs every day which are only 20 rakahs (3 wajib witr), please do it. It only takes few mins to perform 20 rakahs according to the following instructions.

 1) In Ruku and Sajdah instead of reciting "Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem" and "Subhaana Rabbiyal A'la" three times, say it only once. But make sure do not leave Ruku poster untill the Meem (M) of Azeem has been said properly. Similarly do not leave the posture of Sajdah until Ala has been said completely. Just make sure to say these Tasbeehaat properly and do not rush.

 2) In third and four Rakah of Fard Salah instead of reciting the whole Soorah Fatiha say, "Subhan Allah" three times and go to Ruku, . Make sure "Subhan Allah" has been recited three times properly, do not rush. This exeption is only for Fard. In third rakah of Witr it's a must to recite full Soorah Fatiha followed by at least three ayahs of Quran or a soorah (as we usually do in first and second rakah).

 3) In last Qaidah (when we sit for Attahyyat) before Salam, after Attahyyat instead of full Durood and Dua just say, "Allah Humma Salle Ala Sayedena Mohammad Wa Aalihi", then finish the Salat with Salam. Dua is not a must here.

 4) In Witr, instead of full Dua-e-Qunoot just say "Rabbigh Fir Lee" one or three times.

Duaa & Wazaaif

Important Note: Durood Shareef should be read thrice before and after all Du�as and Wazaa�if.  

  1. When one is in fear, or stressed and worried, the following Du�a should be read. This Du�a will assist you as it will give you    peace of the mind and the heart. The Du�a is:

    "Ya Allah, Ya Rahmaan, Ya Raheem, Dille Maara, Kun Mustqeem, Bahaqqe Iyya Ka Na'budu wa Iyya Ka Nasta'een, Wa Bahaqqe, Taa Haa wa Yaaseen, wa Bahaqqe Alaa bi zikrillahi tatma'inul Quloob, wa Bi Haqqe La Hawla wa Laa Quwatta illa Billahil Aliyil Azeem, Wa Tawakaltu alal Laahi Hasbunallahu Wa ne'mal Wakeel, Ne'mal Mowlaa wa Neman Naseer."

     

  2. To free oneself from calamities and illnesses, one should read the following Du�a:
     

    • "Fa Sah'hil Yaa Ilaahi Qulla Sa'bin, Bi Hurmati Sayyidil Abraari Sah'hil."
       

    • "Yaa Rasoolalaahi Unzur Haalana, Yaa Habeeballahi Isma Qaalana, Innani Fi Bahre Hamim Mughraqun, Khuz Yadi Sahil lana Ishkaalana."
       

    • "Li Khamsatin Utfi biha Haral Wabaa'il Haatima, Al Mustapha wal Mutadha wabnaahuma wal Faatima."
       

    • "Ilaahi Bahaqqe Bani Fathima, ke bar qawl Imaa Kunni Khaatima, Agar Daawatam rad Kunni war Qubool, Mano Daste Daamaane Aale Rasool"
       

    •  "Ilaahi Bahaqqe Muhammad Rasool, Gunah Maaf kar ke du�aa kar Qubool"
       

  3. Durood-e-Radawiyyah is a special Durood that should be read 100 times after Jummah Salaah. One should face Madinah Shareef with one�s hands folded in complete respect. The recitation of this Durood is a means of gaining great reward and blessing in this world and in the Hereafter. The Durood is as follows:
     

    • "Sallal laahu alan Nabiyyil Umiyyi Wa Aalihi Sallal laahu Alaihi wasallam Salaataw was Salaaman Alaika Yaa Rasoolallah" 
       

  4. Panj Ganj Qaaderiyah (Five Treasures Of The Qaaderi Order):
     

    • After Salaatul Fajr: �Yaa Azeezu Yaa Allahu�  100 times

    • After Zohar Salaah: �Yaa Kareemu Yaa Allah� 100 times

    • After Asr Salaah: �Yaa Jab'baaru Yaa Allah� 100 times

    • After Maghrib Salaah: �Yaa Sat'taaru Ya Allah� 100 times

    • After Esha Salaah: �Yaa Ghafaaru Yaa Allah� 100 times

       

  5. Bismillah Shareef : If one wishes to be free from hardships and if one wishes to gain success, one should perform Wudhu, and then recite 1 000 times Bismillah. After this read two Rakaats of Nafil Salaah. Then, read abundant Durood Shareef and make Du'a in abundance. Continue this proceedure again and again until one has recited Bismillah 12 000 times and completed 24 Rakaats of Salaah in total, meaning that every time one reads the 1 000 Bismillahs, he should make two Rakaats of Nafil Salaah. On completion of this Wazaa�if, one should make Du�a in the Court of Almighty Allah, through the mediation of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Insha-Allah, one�s Du�a will be accepted. It is also preferable that in the first Rakaat one should recite Ayatul Kursi, and in the second Rakaat Surah Ikhlaas (Qul Huwallah).

     

  6. Advice of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) : Once The Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said to Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu): �Do five things before going to bed at night, that is,
     

    1. Give four thousand Dinars Sadqa,

    2. Read one entire Holy Quran,

    3. Fulfill the right of Heaven,

    4. Fake peace between two people fighting, and

    5. Perform one Hajj.�



    Hazrat Ali (radi Allahu anhu) said, "O Prophet of Allah, this is very difficult for me." The Prophet  (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) then said,

    1. �Read four times Surah Faatiha, and you shall gain the Sawaab of giving four thousand Dinars in charity,
       

    2. Read Surah Ikhlaas (Qul Huwallah) thrice, and you will gain the Sawaab of reciting one Holy Quran,
       

    3. Recite Durood Shareef thrice, and you will gain the Sawaab of Jannah;
       

    4. Recite Astaghfirullah Rabbi min Qulli Zambyu Wa Aatubu Ilaih ten times, and you will gain the reward of making peace between two people fighting, and
       

    5. Recite the third Kalima (Subhaanallahi  Wal Humdu lillahi Wa Laa Ilaha Ilal laahi Allahu Akbar Wa Laa Hawla Wa laa Quwata Illa Bil laahil Aliyil Azeem) four times and you will gain the reward of making Hajj."


    On hearing these words, Hazrat Ali (radi Allahu anhu) said: "As from this day onwards, I will always follow this practice."

Islamic Dressing & Code of Conduct

THE HOLY PROPHET'S DRESSING

  1. Colour of Dress: The colours of preference of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) were first white, and then, green.
     

  2. Shirts (Kamees) and Robes: Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) used a single long robe and recommended its use for others; as it covers the major portions of the body.
     

  3. Trousers: The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) recommended the use of trousers to length of half of the lower portion of the leg. It may however be lengthened above the ankle.
     

  4. Turban and cap: There are a few Traditions (Hadith) discussing the use of the cap and advocating that it should be generally, round and even at the top.

 

COLOUR OF DRESS

It is stated in "Sunan ibn Majah", "Tirmizi Shareef", "Nisa'i Shareef" and "Musnad Imam Ahmed" that Samorah reported that the Prophet of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Put on white dress because it is most pure and pleasant; and use it as a Kaffan for your dead bodies."

The following Ahadith have been recorded in both "Bukhari Shareef" and "Muslims Shareef":-

  1. Hazrat Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the dress most pleasing to the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) for use was green coloured robe.
     

  2. Hazrat Mughirah bin Sha'bah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) put on a robe with tight sleeves.
     

  3. Hazrat Abu Burdah (radi Allahu anhu) reported, Sayyidah Aisha (radi Allahu anha) brought out to us a patched garment and a coarse trouser. She said: "The soul of the Messenger of Allah was taken in this two."
     

  4. Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Allah will not look, on the Resurrection Day to one who lets loose his trousers out of vanity (pride)."
     

  5. Bukhari has reported that Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) stated that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whatever flows of the trouser below the ankles will be in the fire."
     

  6. Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah have recorded a Hadith from Hazrat Abu Sa'eed Al Khudri (radi Allahu anhu) who stated that, "I heard the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) say, 'The trouser of a believer is up to half his hind legs. There is no sin for what is above the ankles. What is below that is in the fire. (This he said thrice). On the Resurrection Day, Allah shall not look to one who allows his trouser to flow out of vanity.'"
     

  7. Ibn Omar (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Whoever puts on a robe of fame in this world, Allah will dress him with the robe of disgrace on the Resurrection Day."
     

  8. Tirmizi recorded a Hadith by Ibn-e-Omar (radi Allahu anhu) who stated that whenever the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) put on a turban, he allowed his turban to flow between his shoulders.
     

  9. Tirmizi has also recorded a Hadith by Rukanah (radi Allahu anhu) who stated that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The distinction between us and the polytheists is turbans over our caps."

 

USE OF SOCKS AND SHOES

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) used to wear shoes (sandals) that had two straps. He never wore shoes (sandals) that had fur. There has been recorded in the Ahadith that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had used socks of various types.

The Sunnat method of wearing socks and shoes is that the right foot must be worn first and then the left foot. In removing the socks and shoes the order is reversed; the left foot must be done first and then the right foot.

In the colder climates, Muslims were used to wearing leather type of socks. Muslims using this leather type of socks are granted the concession whilst making Wuzu of making Masah over these socks instead of washing the feet for Wuzu. The concession is that a traveller may make Masah over the leather socks for a period of three nights and three days whilst the resident of a permanent home may do so for only one day and one night.

The following are some of the Ahadith that relate to the use of socks and shoes:-

  • Hazrat Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the shoe of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had two laces. (Bukhari)
     

  • Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah said: When any of you puts on his shoes, let him begin from right-side; and when he puts off, let him begin from the left-side, so that the right-side will be the first of them for putting on shoe and the last of them for putting it off. (Agreed)
     

  • Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah said: None of you shall walk with one shoe; let them both be bare, or let them both be shoed. (Agreed)
     

  • Hazrat Jaber (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah forbade a man's putting on shoes standing. (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi)
     

  • Hazrat Ibn Abbas (radi Allahu anhu) reported: It is Sunnat for a man to put off his shoes when he sits down, and place them by his side. (Abu Dawud)
     

  • Hazrat Ibn Boraidah (radi Allahu anhu) reported from her father that Negus had presented the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) two plain black socks which he afterwards put on. (Ibn Majah, Tirmidhi)

 

THE HAT

The wearing of the hat is the pride, the sign, the light and the honour of a Muslim. It is also the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The difference between us and the Mushrikeen is that we wear our Turbans on our hats, and they wear it without a hat". The great Jurists have stated that it is Sunnah for men to wear the turban during Salaah, since the reward for this is more. This shows that the hat should be worn, because if the turban is worn, it must be worn on a hat. It is in "Fatawa Alamgeeri", page 291, that the wearing of the hat is a Sunnah. It is in all the famous books of Fiqh that to abstain from wearing the hat without reason is Makrooh-e-Tanzeehi, and if the hat falls in Salaah, then to put it on is better. This should, however, not be Fel-e-Katheer (where is falls continuously).

It is also disliked to read Namaaz or make Tilaawat of the Quran Shareef without the hat. It is also Makrooh to go into the toilet without a hat. Some people say that if the hat was so necessary, then why is it during Hajj one does not use it in the Kaaba. Such persons should know that there are various other things that you are not allowed to do in the Kaaba that you could do anywhere else. Some of them are stated below:-

  1. To make Raml (walk proudly) during Tawaaf in Hajj is allowed. Will you do this anywhere else, whereas the Quran has stated: "Do not walk on the Earth with pride"?
     

  2. To avoid the use of soaps and perfumes in Ihraam is essential. Does this mean that it should not be used at all during other times, even though the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) used 'Ittar and commanded it's use on Jummah and Eid?
     

  3. During the days of Hajj, we are not allowed to use sewn clothes. Does this mean that you should always wear unsewn clothes, even though it has been stated that the humans are decorated by their clothes?
     

  4. During Hajj, one is allowed to pass in front of a Namaazi. Will you always do this, even though it is not allowed in another time? Has it not been stated that if one were to know the punishment for passing in front of a Namaazi, then even if he had to wait all his life for the Namaazi to turn Salaam, he would do so?
     

  5. During Hajj, you are allowed to read Zohr and Asr in Arafaat in the time of Asr, and Maghrib and Esha in the time of Esha in Muzdalifa. Will you perform your Namaaz in this way even if you are in your own country?

Muslims! Respect the hat and use it in Ibaadat. May Allah have mercy on us and save us from the ways of others.

 

THE BEARD AND THE MOUSTACHE

The beard is the Sunnah of Ambiya, the sign of Islam, the recognition of a Muslim and the beauty to the face of a man. The keeping of the beard keeps one away from various sins. To keep the beard one fist length is Sunnah and to trim it less than this or remove it completely is Haraam and a sin. To allow a person, whose beard is trimmed shorter than the prescribed length, or one who shaves of his beard, to be an Imaam is not allowed and a sin. Hufaaz, especially those who keep the beard in Ramadaan and shave it off afterwards, should ponder over this. Namaaz of any type behind such a person is not allowed.

To mock the beard can also lead to Kuffar. To shave off the beard and lengthen the moustache is the way of the Kufaar, Mushrikeen, Majoosi and Christians. It is for the reason that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) commanded us to act against this by lengthening our beards and trimming our moustache. The moustache gives off a certain secretion which is not healthy, and if it were to go into food and water, then it would be unhealthy. Therefore, we should trim the moustache and not shave it off completely. To shave the beard weakens the manhood. To dye the beard and hair with black dye for man is prohibited by authentic Ahadith. Some ladies also get beards or moustache. They are allowed to remove this.

 

CODE OF CONDUCT

SALAAM AND MUSAAFHA (SHAKING HANDS)

SALAAM: GREETING

It has been stated in the fifth part of the Holy Quran: "If someone sends Salaam upon you in good words, then you too must send Salaam upon them in better words or the same". This shows the importance of making Salaam in Islam.

Salaam is a way of respect. It is a beautiful greeting, a means of showing love and gentleness, and a means of creating a bond of brotherhood. Salaam takes away jealousy, hatred and enmity. To be the first to make Salaam to a person is a means of great mercy and reward. Who better to explain the excellence of Salaam than the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)? He said: "When two Muslims meet one another, then they should first make Salaam. If they are then separated by a tree, pillar or wall, on seeing one another again, they should make Salaam".

The first Salaam was made by Hazrat Adam (alaihis salaam) to the Angels showing that Salaam is a Sunnat of the Nabis. The beauty of Salaam is that when one person makes Salaam to the next, he says, "As Salaamu Alaikum" (May all kinds of peace be upon you). In this way he is making Du'a for the person's health, welfare, prosperity and all good things. The person who returns the Salaam, says, "Wa Alaikumus Salaam" (And the same upon You), meaning that he returns the same Du'a and more to you.

Salaam is also a means of promise and bondship. When one Muslim makes Salaam to the other, then he is assuring him that he is now safe from him and he will not be the cause of any pain or loss to him in any way. The person who replies to the Salaam also now makes the pledge of assurity.

The answer to Salaam must be given immediately as it is Waajib to do so and a sin to delay. To make Salaam during Azaan, Iqaamat Namaaz, Khutba, when a person is in the Istinja, or if he or she is having a meal, is not allowed. To make Salaam by lifting the fingers of the palm is not allowed as this is the manner of the Christians and Jews. It is also Haraam to make Salaam to a Kaafir, Mushrik, Bud- Mazhab or Gustakh-e-Rasool (one who insults the station of Prophethood).

One should make Salaam when entering another persons home. When entering one's own home, one should make Salaam to one's parents, wife, brothers, sisters and children. When entering an empty house, on should say: "As Salaamu Alaika Ayuhan Nabiyu wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakaatuhu, Was Salaamu Alaina Wa Alaa Ibaadallahis Saaliheen".

When entering the Musjid, one should say: "Bismillahi Was Salaamu ala Rasoolullahi".

When going to the grave of a Muslim, say at least this: "As Salaamu Alaikum Ya Ahlil Quboor Yaghfirullah lana wa lakum Wa Inna Insha Allahi Bikum Laahiqoon".

When visiting the Roza-e-Anwar of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) one should say: "As Salaatu Was Salaamu Alaika Ya Rasoolallah, As Salaatu Was Salaamu Alaika Ya Habeeballah, As Salaatu Was Salaamu Alaika Ya Rahmatal Lil Alameen Wa Alaa aalika wa Ashaabika Ya Shafi al Muznibeen".

 

MUSAAFHA: SHAKING HANDS

Like Salaam, their are many beauties of Musaafa that have been quoted in the Ahadith. It is proven to be a continuous Sunnah of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

It has been stated in the Hadith that when a Muslim makes Musaafa with another Muslim, then by the mere motion of the hands, all the sins fall thereof. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated that when two Muslims make Musaafa with one another, then even before separating, they are forgiven. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated that when two Muslims make Musaafa by the shaking of the hands, their sins fall off in such a manner as the leaves of a tree fall off during a hurricane, even though they are equivalent to the foam on the sea.

When making Musaafa, it is Sunnah to do so with both hands. It is permissible to make Salaam and Musaafa after every Namaaz as it is a means of Barakah.

For males to shake hands with na-Mahram ladies is not permissable.

MUAANIQA: TO MEET SHOULDER TO SHOULDER

To meet one another, chest to chest, heart to heart, neck to neck and shoulder to shoulder is called "Muaaniqa". This is a sign of love and friendship. On many occasions, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) held the Sahaba to his blessed chest and on various occasions, the Sahaaba made Muaaniqa with the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

BOSA-E-MUHABAT: TO KISS OUT OF LOVE

To kiss the mother, father, Peer, Ustaad, brothers, sisters, wife or children, hand, feet, forehead or cheek out of love and affection is totally permissible and a way of showing love and reverence.

Dear Muslims, make Salaam in the manner prescribed to you when meeting one another, rather than saying, "Howzit", "Namaste", "Good Morning", "Good-bye" or "Good night", etc. The Muslim method of greeting is the best and most kind way of greeting. May Allah protect us from following the ways of non-Muslims. Ameen.

Duty towards Children

In as much as obligation towards parents has been strictly enjoined upon children, Islam has also instituted duties towards children. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) laid down some guiding factors with regard to the upbringing and maintenance of children, especially female children.

The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had raised the status and position of females in Society, and promised the Muslims success and high reward for upbringing their daughters with the necessary education and training to face marriage and lead a decent family life.

The father has been instructed to provide for the maintenance of his infant children, whilst both parents have been instructed to provide education for their young children beginning first with the study of the Holy Quran. Of all the properties and which children inherit from their parents, the best is good manners. Parents have been instructed to spend for the well-being of their children. The Hadith states there is no better cause than to spend for the well-being of their children.

If in the case of the father's death, the mother spends her time bringing up the minor children till they attain maturity, instead of taking a second husband, that mother has been assured a place in Paradise next to the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

There are Ahadith that state that parents should salute (make Salaams to) their children when entering the house; and parents should often express kindness and affection to their children by hugging and kissing them.

The following are Ahadith from the various Kitaabs of Hadith that refer to duties of parents towards children:

  1. Muslim Shareef: Hazrat Anas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Whoever maintains two girls till they attain maturity, he and I will come on the Day of Resurrection like this, 'and he joined his fingers.'"
     

  2. Tirmizi Shareef: Hazrat Jaber bin Samorah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The teaching of good manners by a man to his son is better for him that to give a sa'a in charity."
     

  3. Sunnan Abu Dawud: Hazrat Auf bin Malik (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "I and the woman black of two cheeks shall be like these two fingers on the Day of Resurrection (Yazid bin Zuraiy pointed out the middle and fore-fingers), the woman who has been bereft of her husband (but) possessing beauty and respectability, and who confines herself to (upbringing) her orphan children till they grow major and die."
     

  4. Ibn-e-Majah Shareef: Suraqah bin Malik (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Shall I not teach you the best form of charity? - (maintaining) your daughter who has been returned to you, who has got no earning member except you."
     

  5. Bukhari Shareef and Muslim Shareef: Hazrat Ayesha (radi Allahu anha) reported that a desert Arab came to the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and said: "What! Do you kiss children? But, we don't kiss them?" Then the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "I can't help you since Allah has taken kindness out of your heart."
     

  6. Bukhari Shareef and Muslim Shareef: Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) kissed his grandson Hasan bin Ali (radi Allahu anhu) in the presence of Aqra bin Habis (radi Allahu anhu), whereupon Aqra said: "I have ten children and I have never kissed any of them." The Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) looked towards him and said, "He who is not kind will not be shown kindness."
     

  7. Abu Dawud Shareef: Bara'a (radi Allahu anhu) narrated: "I came with Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) who was the first to reach Madina. Hazrat Ayesha (radi Allahu anha), his daughter, was lying in bed on account of fever. Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) came to her and said, 'How are you my beloved daughter?' and he kissed her."

Parents

 

In accordance with Islamic teachings, the status that is given after Almighty Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is that of parents.

If one's parents are pleased with him or her, then that person has gained the Pleasure of Almighty Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). The Pleasure of Almighty Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) can never be gained if one's parents are displeased. It is the duty of every child to serve his or her parents and be kind to them. They can do this by not showing disrespect and causing pain to them. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated that a disobedient child will not enter Jannat. To look at your parents with love will gain you the Sawaab of Hajj. It is also stated that "Jannat lies under the feet of your mother" and that the father is the "gate to Jannat". In a Hadith it is stated that a certain Sahabi was commanded by his parents to divorce his wife. When he relayed this message to Huzoor (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) advised him to follow his parent's advice.

It is an accepted fact that one may always have a wife and a child, but parents only come once. We should ponder over the fact that if it had not been for our parents, where would we be? A child can never repay or fulfill the right of his or her parents.

It must be noted that the status of the mother is very exalted. The Ulema have written that if the son is engaged in Nafil Salaah and if his mother calls to him, then he should adhere to her call and present himself before her.

After the demise of one's parents, be sure to visit their graves. Make Esaale Sawaab and distribute Khayraat and Sadaqa on their behalf. To show respect and kindness to the friends and family of your parents is also part of your duty towards them. Just as you respect your parents, the respect and obedience for your Peer-e-Tariqah and Ulema-e-Deen is also important. The Haqq of the Deeni Ustaad even supersedes that of parents. Thus, always respect your religious teacher. Also respect your father- and mother-in-law since they are like your parents. The woman should be more dutiful to her in-laws that to her own parents. By doing so she will gain benefits in this world and in the Hereafter.

ACKNOWLEDGING THE STATUS OF PARENTS AND DISCHARGING THEDUTIES TOWARDS THEM

The Beloved Prophet of Islam (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had directed Muslims to show respect and honour their parents even if the parents of Muslims were non-Muslims ill-disposed towards Islam. In Islam, after the duties towards the Supreme Almighty Allah, priority has been given to the duties towards parents (either one or both of them).

The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) instructed Muslims to speak to their parents in the kindest manner that would be soothing to their ears, and never to chide, shout or rebuke them. He also advised that Paradise becomes unlawful (Haraam) for those who are disobedient to their parents; and that long life can only be gained through obedience to parents.

The Holy Quran states in Surah 17, Verses 23-24: "Thy Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them. But address them in terms of honour.

"And out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say, 'My Lord! Bestow on them thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood.'"

In Surah Ahqaf (46), Verse 15, the Holy Quran again states the following: "We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents. In pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth.

The carrying of the (child) to his weaning is (a period of) thirty months."

In Surah Luqman (31), Verse 14, the Holy Quran again states: "And we have enjoined on man (to be good) to his parents; in travail upon travail did his mother bear him. And in years twain was his weaning; (hear the Command) 'Show gratitude to Me (Allah) and to thy parents; to Me (Allah) is thy final goal.'"

The following are Ahaadith from the various Kitaabs of Hadith that refer to a Muslims duty towards his or her parents:

Bukhari Shareef and Muslim Shareef: Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that a man enquired: "O Apostle of Allah! Who is the most proper person for my good association?" He replied, "Thy mother." Then he asked: "Who is next?" He replied, "Thy mother." Then he asked: "Who is next?" He replied, "Thy mother." He enquired: "Who is next?" He said, "Thy father." In another narration: He replied, "Thy mother, then thy mother, then thy mother, and then thy father and then thy nearest relatives and then thy nearer relatives."

Muslim Shareef: Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "May he be humbled! May he be humbled! May he be humbled!" It was questioned: "Who? O Apostle of Allah?" He said: "The one who finds parents in their old age - one of them or both of them, and yet does not enter Paradise."

Bukhari Shareef and Muslim Shareef: Hazrat Asma bint Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhuma) reported: My mother, while she was a polytheist during the Treaty of the Quraish, came to me. I asked: "O Messenger of Allah! My mother has come to me while she is ill-disposed (to Islam) Should I show her respect?" He replied, "Yes, show respect to her."

Muslim Shareef: Hazrat Ibn Omar (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The most excellent form of obedience to parents is a man befriending the friends of his father after he has passed away."

Ibn-e-Majah Shareef: Hazrat Saoban (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Nothing but supplication can annul predestination, and nothing but obedience to parents can prolong long life. A man is deprived of his provision for his sins he commits."

Tirmizi Shareef: Hazrat Abdullah bin Amr (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The pleasure of the Lord is in the pleasure of the father, and the displeasure of the Lord is in the displeasure of the father."

Sunan Abu Dawood and Ibne Majah Shareef: Hazrat Abu Osaid-as Sayedi (radi Allahu anhu) reported: We were near the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) when a man of Banu Salemah came to him and asked: "O Apostle of Allah! Is there any obedience to parents left that I can show to them after their demise?" He replied, "Yes, to pray for them, to seek forgiveness for them, to fulfill their instructions after their death, to keep affinity with those who are not connected with you but through them, and to honour their friend."

Nisai Shareef, Musnad Imam Ahmad and Baihaqi Shareef: Hazrat Mu'awiyah bin Ja'hemah (radi Allahu anhuma) reported that Ja'hemah came to the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and said: "O Messenger of Allah! I intend to join a battle and have come to you for consultation." He enquired, "Have you got a mother?" He replied, "Yes." He said: "Then keep near her, because Paradise is at her feet."

Ibne Majah Shareef: Hazrat Abu Omamah (radi Allahu anhu) reported that a man asked: "O Messenger of Allah! What are the rights of parents over their children?" He replied, "They are your Paradise and your Hell."

Tirmizi Shareef: Hazrat Jaber (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Whoso has got three things in him, Allah will make his death easy and will admit him in Paradise - mercy to the weak, kindness to the parents and doing good to the slave."

Baihaqi Shareef: Hazrat Ibn Abbas (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said:"No obedient son look to his parents with a look of kindness but Allah does not write for them one accepted pilgrimage for every look." They enquired, "And if he looks hundred times every day?" He said, "Yes, Allah is most Great and Most Beneficent."

Baihaqi Shareef: Hazrat Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Almighty Allah may pardon all sins He pleases except disobedience to parents; and He hastens (punishment) in this life before death for one who commits it."

For a Safe Journey

A person in reality is a traveller, and some time or the other, he needs to go on a journey. Any person who intends to go on a journey must read Sura Qul Ya Ay-yuhal Kaafirun, Sura Jaa'a, Sura Qul Hu-wallah, Sura Falaq and Sura Naas and then commence with his journey. Insha-Allah, his journey will be safe and prosperous.

The Beard & The Moustache

The beard is the Sunnah of Ambiya, the sign of Islam, the recognition of a Muslim and the beauty to the face of a man. The keeping of the beard keeps one away from various sins. To keep the beard one fist length is Sunnah and to trim it less than this or remove it completely is Haraam and a sin. To allow a person, whose beard is trimmed shorter than the prescribed length, or one who shaves of his beard, to be an Imaam is not allowed and a sin. Hufaaz, especially those who keep the beard in Ramadaan and shave it off afterwards, should ponder over this. Namaaz of any type behind such a person is not allowed.  

To mock the beard can also lead to Kuffar. To shave off the beard and lengthen the moustache is the way of the Kufaar, Mushrikeen, Majoosi and Christians. It is for the reason that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) commanded us to act against this by lengthening our beards and trimming our moustache. The moustache gives off a certain secretion which is not healthy, and if it were to go into food and water, then it would be unhealthy. Therefore, we should trim the moustache and not shave it off completely. To shave the beard weakens the manhood. To dye the beard and hair with black dye for man is prohibited by authentic Ahadith. Some ladies also get beards or moustache. They are allowed to remove this.

Dogs And Photographs

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated: "Angels of Mercy do not enter that house in which there are dogs and Photographs (of living objects)".  

To keep dogs, without reason, but as pets, is disallowed and to take photographs without a valid reason, is also Haraam. To keep a dog for the protection of an orchard, a farm, a business, your house, etc. is permissible. When keeping dogs even for this reason, utmost precaution is necessary. To keep money, postal stamps, passport, I.D. document, etc on which there are pictures of living objects, due to necessity, is allowed.

Gems of Wisdom

  • Ask about the value of parents - From those who are orphaned
     

  • Ask the value of children - From those who have no children
     

  • Ask the value of health - From those who are ill
     

  • Ask the value of wealth - From those who are poor
     

  • Ask the value of food - From those who are hungry
     

  • Ask the value of eyes - From those who are blind
     

  • Ask the value of knowledge - From those who are knowledgable
     

  • Ask the value of youth - From those whom have aged

  • Abstain from disobedience to Allah - you will become a worshipper
     

  • Love the Holy Prophet - you will become a believer
     

  • Be patient and grateful for faith - you will become wealthy
     

  • Gain knowledge - you will become a leader
     

  • Work hard and strive - you will become successful
     

  • Abstain from jealousy - you will brighten your heart

  • To speak less - is to be wise
     

  • To eat less - is to be healthy
     

  • To sleep less - is to be a better worshipper
     

  • To associate less - is to be safe

Threesomes (Those things in Threes)

  • DON'T LEAVE THESE THREE THINGS - Imaan, Hope and Faith
     

  • ABSTAIN FROM THREE THINGS - Bad Deeds, Company and Thoughts
     

  • FIGHT FOR THESE THREE - Your Country, Nation and Truth
     

  • RESPECT THESE THREE - Parents, Peer and Ustaad, Law
     

  • THINK OF THESE THREE AS A BLESSING - Age, Health and Wealth
     

  • WISH FOR THESE THREE - Health, Good Wife, Pious children
     

  • KEEP THESE THREE THINGS CLEAN - Clothes, Body, Thoughts
     

  • CONTROL THESE THREE - Heart, Tongue, Temper
     

  • THESE THREE DO NOT GIVE WARNING - Death, Illness, Destruction
     

  • ALWAYS STRIVE FOR THESE THREE - Knowledge, Halaal food, Good  Deeds
     

  • DO NOT DELAY THESE THREE - Namaaz, Janazah, Marriage of a Daughter  
     

  • 3 THINGS DEVOUR GOOD DEEDS - Jealously, Greed, Back-biting
     

  • 3 THINGS DESTROY A BUSINESS - Gambling, Lottery, Betting
     

  • 3 THINGS DEVOUR IMAAN - Greed, Selfishness, Distrust
     

  • 3 THINGS DEVOUR SUSTENANCE - Lies, Fraud, Disloyalty
     

  • 3 THINGS DAMAGE MENTALITY - Anger, Intoxication, Insanity
     

  • 3 TYPES OF PEOPLE ARE DISGRACED - Hipocrites, Backbiters, Shameless People

Five Things

The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Soon my Ummah will reach a time wherein they will love five things and
forget five things:

  1. They will love the world & forget the Hereafter,
     

  2. They will love wealth & forget the Day of Reckoning,
     

  3. They will love the creation & forget the Creator,
     

  4. They will love sinning & forget repenting, and
     

  5. They will love their homes & forget the Grave

(Reference: "Mukaashifatul Quloob" by Imam Ghazzali - radi Allahu anhu)

Benefits of Salt

The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "O Ali! You should commence your meal with salt, since there is cure in salt for 70 illnesses and amongst them are leprosy, leucoderma, insanity, stomach and toothaches". ("Jaame Kabeer").

Miracles And Karamaat

A Wali by the name of Sayyid Shah Muhammad Waris Rasool Numa (alaihimur Rahma) in India had the name "Muhammad" naturally in green colour on the palm of his right hand and scent of 'Ittar used to come from his body. From a young age he used to see the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in his dream and also helped others to see. He was thus known as "Rasool Numa".  

In 555 A.H. (1160), a great Saint known as Sheikh Ahmed Rifaa'i Awliyah-e-Kabeera (radi Allahu anhu) went to the Roza-e-Anwar of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and said: "As Salaamu alaika ya Jaddi", and the reply was, "Wa alaikas Salaam Ya Waladi". Sheikh Ahmed Rifaa'i then made Du'a and the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) extended his blessed hand from the grave and made Musaafa with him. He then kissed the hand of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and the blessed hand went back into the Roza-e-Anwar. Almost 99 000 people saw and heard of this, amongst whom was Sheikh Abdul Qaadir Jilani (radi Allahu anhu).  

Religious & Historic Facts

  • The parents of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) were believers and Sahaabi.
     

  • The grave of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was prepared by Hazrat Abu Talha (radi Allahu anhu).

  • Sayyiduna Jibraeel (alaihis salaam) came 24 000 times into the court of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
     

  • Hazrat Adam (alaihis salaam) walked from India to Makkah and made forty Hajj.
     

  • Hazrat Adam (alaihis salaam) had knowledge of 100 000 languages. (Roohul Bayaan)
     

  • It is greater to listen to the Quran than reading Nafil and reciting. (Law)
     

  • When the Quran is recited aloud, then it is Fardh to listen to it.
     

  • Except in a Hifz class and Quran lesson, it is Haraam for people in a gathering to read Quran aloud.
     

  • The Quran has been translated into fifty different languages to date. (Quran-e Kareem Number Dehli)
     

  • Only 26 Ambiyas names have appeared clearly in the Quran.
     

  • Only twelve Angels have been spoken of in the Quran.
     

  • Except for the name of Zaid bin Haarith (radi Allahu anhu), no other Companions name appears explicitly in the Quran.
     

  • Except the name of Sayyida Maryam (radi Allahu anha), the name of no other woman has come explicitly in the Quran.
     

  • Amongst the Jinnat, only Shaitaan's (Iblees') name appears in the Quran.
     

  • Iblees will not be punished with fire but with cold. (Roohul Bayaan)
     

  • Those who pass away on a Friday or in Ramadaan will be saved from the questioning in the grave.
     

  • 17. At the time of death, a person is faced with 624 000 sorrows. (Roohul Bayaan)
     

  • To respect the grave of a Muslim is necessary.
     

  • To read Namaaz-e-Janazah or give Azaan inside the Mosque is Makrooh.
     

  • Suicide is Haraam and a great sin, but the Janaza Salaah of a suicide victim must be performed.
     

  • The place where Azaan is given is protected for that day from any calamities.
     

  • To give Azaan at the grave-side or in one's home and business is a means of blessing and mercy.
     

  • To place green and fresh plants and flowers on the grave is good as they make the Tasbeeh of Allah.
     

  • Jannat is only for human Muslims. (Malfoozat)
     

  • If a woman marries the second time, she will be in Jannah with the second husband. (Hadith)
     

  • In Jannah, Hazrat Aasia and Hazrat Maryam (radi Allahu anha) will be amongst the wives of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
     

  • Hazrat Fathima Zahra (radi Allahu anha), although human, was free from menstruations, etc. like the maidens of Jannah.
     

  • Ramadaan and Eid should be celebrated by the physical sighting of the moon or by the receiving Shar'i Shahaadat. Calendars should not be followed for performing Ibaadah such as Eid Salaah.
     

  • On the 10th of Muharram, Zam-Zam is mixed in all the pure waters of the world. (Roohul Bayaan)
     

  • The sky is above and the sun, moon and stars are all below the sky.
     

  • The sun and the moon are in motion.
     

  • The sky and the earth are both stationary.
     

  • To drink, sell, touch, serve, keep or do any transaction with alcohol are all Haraam.
     

  • Nikah is only done out of happiness and consent.
     

  • When joking, or even playing and one gives Talaaq, then it becomes applicable.
     

  • From all the Halaal things in the world, the most disliked by Allah is Talaaq.
     

  • For men to dress and behave like women and for women to dress and behave like men is Haraam.
     

  • For men to wear gold is Haraam.
     

  • Men should wear one silver ring not weighing more than four and a half marsha (ounce).
     

  • To stand before "Haya Alas Salaah, Haya alal Falaah" in Iqaamat is Makrooh and to stand on hearing it is Mustahab.
     

  • Four Ambiya are still physically alive. In other words, they had not tasted death as yet. They are Hazrat Esa and Hazrat Idrees (alaihimus salaam) in the skies and Hazrat Khidr and Hazrat Ilyaas (alaihimus salaam) are on the earth. (Madaarik)
     

  • Four persons conquered the whole world from East to West, two were Muslims and two Kaafirs. the two Muslims were Hazrat Zul Qarnain and Hazrat Sulaiman (alaihis salaam). The two Kaafirs were Namrood and Bukht Nassar.

Hadiths for Practical Living

  1. I leave with you two things; as long as you hold fast to them both, you will never be misguided � the Kitab (Book) of Allah and Sunnat of His Rasool (Messenger). (Muwatta)
     

  2. He has tasted the sweetness of faith who is pleased with Allah as Rabb, with Islam as Deen and with Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as Rasool (Messenger). (Sahih Muslim)
     

  3. Blessed is he who is guided to Islam, and whose livelihood is just sufficient and who is contented therewith. (Tirmidhi)
     

  4. Everyone of my followers will enter Jannat (Paradise) except he who refused. He (the Rasool of Allah) was asked: And who has refused (truth)? He said: Whosoever obeys me shall enter Jannat (Paradise) and whoever disobeys me has refused. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  5. The Pleasure of the Rabb is in the pleasure of the father, and the displeasure of the Rabb is in the displeasure of the father. (Tirmidhi)
     

  6. A man asked: O Rasool of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam): What are the rights of the parents over their children? He replied: They are your Jannat (Paradise) and your Jahannam (Hell). (Ibn-Majah)
     

  7. No father can give a better gift to his son than good manners. (Tirmidhi)
     

  8. Let no believing man hate a believing woman. If he hates one trait of her character, he should be pleased with another that is within her. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  9. Whichever female dies while her husband was pleased with her, will enter Jannat (Paradise). (Tirmidhi)
     

  10. The most perfect of the believers in faith is he who is the best of them in conduct, and the best of you are those who are the best to their wives. (Tirmidhi)
     

  11. If a young man shows honour to an old man on account of his age, Allah will create for him in his old age someone who will show him honour. (Tirmidhi)
     

  12. You will see the believers in their mutual kindness, displaying love and sympathy just like one body. When a limb complains, the whole body responds to it with wakefulness and fever. (Agreed)
     

  13. You shall not enter Jannat until you believe; and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I not guide you a thing? When you will do it, you will love one another. Spread (Salaam) among you. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  14. Be not happy over (the sorrows of) your brother, lest Allah shows mercy to the latter and tries you. (Tirmidhi)
     

  15. The duties of a Muslim towards another Muslim are five: to return his greeting, to visit the sick, to follow the bier of a dead man, to accept his invitation, and to respond to one's sneezes. (Agreed)
     

  16. Eat together and be not separate, because blessings is only with the united body. (Ibn-Majah)
     

  17. If a Muslim is afficted with any trouble, continuous pain, anxiety, sorrow, harm, disaster, and even a thorn which he is pierced with - Allah expiates his minor sins thereof. (Agreed)
     

  18. Allah is not kind to one who is not kind to men. (Agreed)
     

  19. He who is devoid of kindness is devoid of good. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  20. Be careful of (narrating) traditions from me except what you know. Whoso imputes falsehood to me intentionally, let him then seek his abode in the fire. (Tirmidhi)
     

  21. When a man dies, all his actions are cut off from him except three: ever recuring charity; or knowledge from which benefit it derived; or virtuous son praying for him. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  22. Whoso interprets the Quran according to his opinion, let him seek his abode in the fire. And in a naration: Whoso interprets the Quran without knowledge, let him seek his abode in the fire. (Tirmidhi)
     

  23. Whoever guides towards good, will have a reward of one who acts up to it. (Hadith)
     

  24. The dearest to me among you is he who is the best of you in conduct. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  25. Whoso gives up falsehood which is void, there is built for him a mansion in the corner of Jannat; and whoso gives up dispute while he has right (to it), there is built for him a mansion in the middle of Jannat; and whoso makes his conduct good, there is built for him a mansion in its loftiest part. (Tirmidhi)
     

  26. One (on the Day of Judgement, before Allah) will not be able to move away until he has accounted for his:
     

    1. Life, how it was spent,
       

    2. Knowledge, to what use it was put,
       

    3. Wealth, how it was acquired and spent,
       

    4. Body, how it was utilised? (Hadith)
       

  27. Avoid the seven deadly sins. The Companions asked: What are they, O Rasool of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)? The Rasool of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) replied:
     

    1. Attributing partner to Allah,
       

    2. Magic,
       

    3. Murder,
       

    4. Usury,
       

    5. Misappropriating that which belongs to orphans,
       

    6. Turning the back on the day of Jihad,
       

    7. Levelling charges against chaste and innocent women. (Hadith)
       

  28. An honest and trustworthy merchant shall be with the Ambiya (Prophets) and the Martyrs and the pious men. (Hadith)
     

  29. Hazrat Abu Huraira (radi Allahu anhu) said: O Rasool of Allah! (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) I offer myself. Rasoollulah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) caught his hand and enumerated five advices: a. Avoid what is unlawful, and you will be praying more than others,
     

    1. Be satisfied with what Allah has allotted to you, and you will never feel any lack,
       

    2. Be good to your neighbours, and you will attain the position of a Mu'min (Faithful),
       

    3. Choose for others what you choose for yourself, and you will be a perfect Muslim,
       

    4. Do not laugh too much, for laughter deadens the heart. (Hadith)
       

  30. Be responsible for six things, and I shall be responsible for your entry into Jannat:
     

    1. Speak always the truth,
       

    2. Fulfil all your promises,
       

    3. Return any article given to you in trust in its proper condition,
       

    4. Guard the secret places of your body,
       

    5. Keep your eyes down,
       

    6. Hold off your hands (from tyranny and wrong doing). (Hadith)
       

  31. Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) forbade blood sports, like the Bedouins. (Hadith)
     

  32. Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said:
     

    1. To gaze at a strange (ghair mahram) woman is the Zina (adultery) of the eyes,
       

    2. To listen to passion-stirring words is Zina of the ears,
       

    3. To converse with a strange women (and derive pleasure therefrom) is Zina of the tongue,
       

    4. To touch a strange women is Zina of the hands,
       

    5. To walk towards her is Zina of the feet,
       

    6. The heart desires and craves; the sexual organs then either testify to these or deny them. (Sahih Muslim)
       

  33. Allah Ta'ala will not cast a merciful glance towards the person that commits sodomy or anal sex with his wife. (Mishkaat)
     

  34. (Part of) the beauty of a man's Islam is to leave what does not concern him. (Tirmidhi)
     

  35. Don't be moved by anger. He (the man seeking advise) then repeated (i.e. his request) several times, but Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: Don't be moved by anger. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  36. Surely (for you) every Tasbih is an act of charity, every Takbir is an act of charity, every Tahmid is an act of charity, the commanding of right actions is an act of charity, and your sexual intercourse (with you wives) is an act of charity. They asked, (in surprise), O Rasool of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)! Can it be that anyone of us fulfils his passion, and be rewarded for it? Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: Do you see, if you got it (i.e. sexual satisfaction) through unlawful means, would there be sin in it? In the same manner, there is reward for him who performs it lawfully. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  37. Whosoever among you sees an undersirable thing, he should change it with his hand. But, if he cannot, he should do it (i.e. change it) with his tongue. If he is not able to do that even, he should do it with his heart, and that is the weakest of faith. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  38. Whoso kills a sparrow for nothing, it will cry loud to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, saying, O my Rabb! Such-and-such a man killed me for nothing: he never killed me for any good. (Nisaai)
     

  39. Every good word is charity. (Hadith)
     

  40. Almsgiving extinguishes the Wrath of Allah. (Tirmidhi)
     

  41. That a man give a dirham in alms during his lifetime, is better for him than that he should give a hundred dirhams at his death. (Abu Dawud)
     

  42. Cleanliness is one-half of faith. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  43. To be alone is better that (to have) a bad companion; and a good companion is better than being alone; and dictating the good is better that keeping silence; and silence is better than dictating evil. (Baihaqi; Mishkaat Shareef)
     

  44. Whoso curses a thing when it does not deserve it, - makes the curse to return upon him. (Abu Dawud)
     

  45. All sins are pardoned of a Martyr except (his) debts. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  46. I said: O Rasool of Allah! (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) I have so much hair upon my head, should I then comb it? The Rasool of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: Yes, and also do it justice! (Nisaai)
     

  47. Deliberation is of Allah, and haste is of Satan. (Tirmidhi)
     

  48. The most hateful of (all) lawful thing, in the sight of Allah, is divorce. (Abu Dawud)
     

  49. The women who seeks divorce from her husband, without being forced (to it due to unjust treatment), shall not smell the fragrance of Jannat. (Tirmidhi)
     

  50. I never saw anyone smile more than the Prophet. (Tirmidhi)
     

  51. No present or gift of a parent, out of all the gifts and presents to a child, is superior to a good education. (Tirmidhi)
     

  52. The best part of faith is to say, There is no Allah but Allah, and the least of it is to remove all injurious things from the (public) road. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  53. Faith is a restraint against all unjust violence, let no Mu'min commit violence. (Abu Dawud)
     

  54. Whoso brings up three daughters or three sisters, or two sisters or two daughters, and gives them a good education, and treats them well, and gives them in marriage, for him is Jannat. (Abu Dawud)
     

  55. Feed the hungry, visit the sick, and free the captive. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  56. There are four qualities which being (found) in any make him a complete hypocrite; and whoever has one of these, has one hypocritical quality until he avoids it: perfidy when trusted, lying when speaking, leaving in the lurch when convenanting, and wickedness when quarrelling. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  57. Every deen has a distinctive virtue, and the distinctive virtue of Islam is modesty. (Malik)
     

  58. Whoso walks in a path seeking knowledge therein, Allah will thereby make easy for him the path of Jannah. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  59. Whoso goes forth in search of knowledge, engages himself in the cause of Allah until he returns (home). (Tirmidhi)
     

  60. When the Rasool of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) sent me as a Governor of Yemen, he said: Beware of leading a luxurious life for verily the servants of (Allah) never lead a luxurious life. (Ahmad)
     

  61. When a servant (of Allah) tells a lie, (his) Angel goes away from him to the distance of a mile, because of the internal commotions of what it brings. (Tirmidhi)
     

  62. When there are three men, let not two egage in a private discourse without the third, for that may grieve him. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  63. A woman is married for four qualifications: for her wealth, for her birth, for her beauty, and for Deen; but you look out for Deeni women; and if you do it for any other consideration, your hands will be rubbed in dirt! (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  64. Allah is not merciful to him who is not merciful to men. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  65. Whoso shows (a way) to good, shall have a reward like that of the man who does it himself. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  66. Eat and give alms and cloth yourselves without being extravagant or vain. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  67. In his journeys, Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) would remain in the rear, taking care of the weak, and seating them behind him, and he would also pray for them. (Abu Dawud)
     

  68. A Mu'min does not eliminate, nor curse, nor is he a doer of filthy actions, nor is he an impudent fellow. (Tirmidhi)
     

  69. He is not a Mu'min who eats his fill while his neighbour lies hungry by his side. (Baihaqi)
     

  70. Seize five opportunities before the five (calamities): your youth before weakness in old age; your health before your sickness; richness before poverty; your leisure before business; your life before death. (Tirmidhi)
     

  71. The worst of feasts are the marriage feasts in which the rich are invited and the poor left out. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  72. Send presents to one another, for verily presents take away the grudge of the heart; and let no neighbour despise the present of his neighbour, be it ever so little. (Tirmidhi)
     

  73. Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) loved an action which could be performed regularly, although it was little. (Nisaai)
     

  74. Whoso causes (others) to hear (of his virtues) Allah will disgrace him thereby; and whoso shows (himself) off, Allah will humiliate thereby. (Sahih Bukhari)
     

  75. Whoso holds fast to my example during the corruption of my people, he shall have the reward of hundred Martyrs. (Baihaqi)
     

  76. He who spends in the Cause of Allah will have his reward seven hundred times. (Tirmidhi)
     

  77. Avoid all things doubtful for those that are not doubtful, verily truth brings quiet, and falsehood doubt. (Tirmidhi)
     

  78. Moderation in expenses is half livelihood, and the love of men is half wisdom, and good questioning is half knowledge. (Baihaqi)
     

  79. There are two traits which are never found together in a hypocrite: good conduct and the understanding of Deen. (Tirmidhi)
     

  80. There is a trial for every people, and the trial for my people is wealth. (Tirmidhi)
     

  81. The world is a provision, and the best provision of the world is a virtuous woman. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  82. I have left behind me no more greater trial for men than woman. (Nisaai)
     

  83. No man is alone with a strange woman, but Satan is the third among them. (Tirmidhi)
     

  84. I asked the Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) with regard to a sudden glance cast on a woman. He said: Turn away your glance. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  85. My companions are like stars, whosoever (from among them) you (choose to) follow, you will be guided. (Mishkaat)
     

  86. All actions depend upon its intention. (Sahih Bukhari; Sahih Muslim)
     

  87. Offering prayer in congregation carries twenty-seven times greater reward that offering it alone. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  88. I am the last of prophets and there will be none after me. (Sahih Bukhari; Sahih Muslim)
     

  89. When someone makes his Wudhu at home and walks to the mosque with the intention of discharging an obligation to Allah, then each (alternate) step cancels a sin while the other one adds to his virtues. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  90. Narrate the virtues of the dead and refrain from revealing their sins. (Abu Dawud)
     

  91. Remember often the terminator of pleasures (i.e. death). (Tirmidhi)
     

  92. When your good deeds make you happy and your bad deeds make you sad, you have Imaan. (Ahmad)
     

  93. Allah loves the pious rich man who (in spite of his piety and wealth) is obscure and unknown to fame. (Muslim)
     

  94. For every community there is a special trial and the special trial for my community is wealth. Tirmidhi)
     

  95. 95. A Muslim is he from the mischief of whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe and a Momin (faithful Believer) is he on whose account people do not feel a threat to their life and property. (Tirmidhi)
     

  96. Among the Muslims more perfect in faith is he whose manners are better. (Abu Dawood)
     

  97. Do not make your house as graveyards. Satan runs away from the house in which Surah Baqara is recited. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  98. No man should see the private parts of another man, nor a woman should see the private parts of another woman. (Imam Muslim)
     

  99. Give presents to one another and you will intensify mutual affection. (Tabarani)
     

  100. From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcohol and the use of musical instruments as lawful. (Bukhari)
     

  101. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of you will have faith till he loves me more that his father and his children. (Bukhari)
     

  102. Anyone who has wealth on which he has not paid Zakaat will, on the Day of Rising, find his wealth made to resemble a white-headed serpent with a sac of venom in each cheek which will seek him out until it has him in its power (control), saying, "I am the wealth that you had hidden away." (Al-Muwatta)
     

  103. There are three people who will not enter Paradise: one who is addicted to wine, one who breaks ties of relationship, and one who believes in magic. (Miskhat al-Masabih)
     

  104. If Allah puts anyone in the position of authority over the affairs of the Muslims, and he secludes himself (from them), not fulfilling their needs, wants, and poverty, Allah will keep Himself away from him, not fulfilling his need, want and poverty. (Abu Dawud)
     

  105. If a young man shows honour to an old man on account of his age, Allah will create for him in his old age someone who will show him honour. (Tirmidhi)
     

  106. My companions are like stars, whosoever (from among them) you (choose to) follow, you will be guided. (Mishkaat)
     

  107. Whoso gives up falsehood which is void, there is built for him a mansion in the corner of Jannat; and whoso gives up dispute while he has right (to it), there is built for him a mansion in the middle of Jannat; and whoso makes his conduct good, there is built for him a mansion in its loftiest part. (Tirmidhi)
     

  108. Go steady in loving your friend, for he may one day become your enemy. Go steady in hating your enemy, for he may become your friend one day. (Ihya 'Ulum al-Din)
     

  109. If anyone eats in a bowl and then he licks it up, the bowl begs forgiveness for him. (Ibn Majah)
     

  110. The dead man in his grave is like one shipwrecked, completely dependent for everything. He waits for a prayer from a son or brother or relative. (Ihya 'Ulum al-Din)
     

  111. The most fearful thing that I fear regarding my people (Ummah) is the act (of homosexuality) committed by Lut's People. (Ibn Majah)
     

  112. The most excellent man is he who works hard in the way of Allah with his life and property. (Bukhari)
     

  113. The key to Paradise is Salaah and the key to Salaah is Tahaarah (Cleanliness). (Miskhat)
     

  114. Beware of suspicion, for suspicion may be based on false information, do not spy on one another, do not disclose other's hidden defects. (Bukhari)
     

  115. He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should honour his guest. (Bukhari)
     

  116. A person's best treasures are a tongue always engaged in the remembrance of Allah, an ever-grateful heart and a believing wife who helps him in his Imaan. (al-Tirmidhi)
     

  117. Let "La ilaha illallah" be the first words your children utter and instruct them to say the same at the time of their death. (al-Baihaqi)
     

  118. The (example of the) value of this world in comparison to (that of) the Hereafter is as if you dip a finger in the ocean and then pull it out. So see how much water sticks to it. (Muslim)
     

  119. A time will come when the conversation of people in the mosque will centre around worldly affairs. You must not sit with such people, for Allah has nothing to do with them. (al-Baihaqi)
     

  120. If I were to choose amongst the people of the earth someone as my bosom friend, I would have chosen the son of Abu Quhafa (Abu Bakr) as my friend, but Allah has taken your companion as a friend. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  121. A believer does not undergo (the trouble) of running a thorn or more than when Allah effaces his sins. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  122. When the dead body is placed in the grave, he listens to the sound of the shoes (as his friends and relatives return after burying him). (Sahih Muslim)
     

  123. When people awake from the graves, I will be the first to awake, I will be the leader of all. When they are presented in front of Allah, I will be their representative. When they become tired, I will be their intercessor..." (Miskhat)
     

  124. May Allah be kind to a man of gentle dealings when he sells, when he purchases and when he gives decisions. (Bukhari)
     

  125. If the habitual drunkard dies, he meets Allah like one who worships idols. (Ibn Majah)
     

  126. Allah curses one who looks (with lust) and who is looked upon. (Baihaqi)
     

  127. A time will come over man when the patient of them in his religion will be like one who holds burning coal in his hand. (Tirmidhi)
     

  128. All your deeds are presented to me on Thursday. I thank Allah for your good deeds whereas for your bad deeds I seek forgiveness for you from Allah. (Hadith narrated by Hazrat Anas bin Malik - radi Allahu anhu)
     

  129. Do not rejoice over the distress of a brother Muslim for Allah may relieve his distress and place you in his position. (Tirmidhi)
     

  130. The best (way) of saying Salaam is shaking hands. (Tirmidhi)
     

  131. Be careful of your duty to Allah and be fair and just to your children. (Bukhari)
     

  132. Removing from the road that which is harmful is charity. (Bukhari)
     

  133. Secret Alms extinguish the anger of the Lord. (Tirmidhi)
     

  134. To one who often seeks His forgiveness, Allah, Great and Glorious is He, grants relief from all troubles, a way out of all distress, and sustenance beyond his expectations. (al-Nasai)
     

  135. Allah will have no regard, on the Day of Resurrection, for that servant of His who does not straighten his spine between bowing and making prostration. (Ahmad)
     

  136. In the latter days, there will be members of my Community who come to the Mosques and sit there in circles. Their talk will be of this world and their love of it. Do not sit in their company, for Allah has no need of them. (al-Hakim)
     

  137. When you see a servant endowed with sincere devotion in this world and little talk, seek nearness to him as he cannot be free from wisdom. (Baihaqi)
     

  138. Son of Adam, to give away what you have extra is better for you and to withhold it is worse for you., but you are not blamed for having a sufficiency. Give first to those who are dependent on you.(Muslim)
     

  139. If anyone performs the pilgrimage for Allah's sake without talking immodestly or acting wickedly, he will return (free from sin) as on the day his mother bore him.(Bukhari)
     

  140. When you are sought in marriage by one whom you are pleased with for his religion and for his character, get yourself married to him. If you do not do it, there will be distress in the world and wide spread dissension.(Tirmizi)
     

  141. Fasting is a protection for you, so when you are fasting, do not behave obscenely of foolishly, and if any one argues with you or abuses you, say, "I am fasting, I am fasting." (Al-Muwatta)
     

  142. Whoever observes the fast during the month of Ramadaan out of sincere faith, and hoping to attain Allah's rewards, then all his past sins will be forgiven. (Bukhari)
     

  143. Whoever watches the night in prayer in Ramadaan with trust and expectancy will be forgiven all his previous wrong actions. (Al-Muwatta)
     

  144. He who observed the fast of Ramadaan and then followed it with six (fasts) of Shawaal, it would be as if he fasted perpetually. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  145. I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bodily parts and not to fold back the hair or clothing: the forehead, the nose, the hands, the knees and the feet. (Sahih Muslim)
     

  146. Beware of suspicion. Suspicion is the most untrue speech. Do not spy and do not eavesdrop. Do not compete with each other and do not envy each other and do not hate each other and do not shun each other. Be slaves of Allah, brothers. (Muwatta)
     

  147. Differ from the polytheists: let your beards (grow) and trim your moustache. (Muslim)
     

  148. Do not drink in gold and silver utensils, and do not wear clothes of silk or Dibaj, for these things are for them (unbelievers) in this world and for you in the Hereafter. (Bukhari)
     

  149. Allah has cursed the lady who artificially lengthens (her or someone else's) hair, and the one who gets her hair lengthened and the one who tattoos (herself or someone else), and the one who gets herself tattooed. (Bukhari)
     

  150. Whoso makes pilgrimage and then visits my grave after my death is like one who visited me in my life time. (Baihaqi)
     

  151. The callers to prayer will have the longest necks of all people on the Day of Resurrection. (Muslim)
     

  152. Iman has more than seventy or eighty grades - the highest of which is to attest that there is no god except Allah, and the lowest of which is to remove from a path something that might cause harm to others. Modesty, too, is a grade of Iman. (Bukhari)
     

  153. Those who leave a gathering after having made no mention of Allah leave it like the corpse of a donkey and suffer remorse. (Abu Dawud)
     

  154. When a person dies, his actions come to an end except in respect to three things that he leaves behind: a continuous charity, beneficial knowledge that helps others, and righteous children who pray for him. (Muslim)
     

  155. Every nation is subjected to a trial, and the trial of my followers will be wealth. (Tirmidhi)
     

  156. On the Day of Qiyamah there will be a group of people around the Fountain of Kauther whom I will recognise as those who used to read the Durood Shareef in abundance. (Shifa Shareef)
     

  157. He who speaks good about Abu Bakr, his religion is well established; he who speaks good about Umar, his religious path has been well grounded. He who speaks good about Uthman is enlightened with the Noor of Almighty Allah, and he who speaks good about Ali holds on to a bond that never breaks. They who speak well of my Sahaba (Companions) are truly Mu'mins. (Shawaa'hidul Haqq)
     

  158. A person who is overwhelmed by anxiety and worry should increase the reading of the Durood Shareef. Durood Shareef eradicates anxiety, worry and distress. It also increase sustenance and satisfies the needs. (Nuzhatun Naazireen)

Qurban

The Ahkam of Qurbani

The Fazail and Masail of Qurbani

To zabh (slaughter) a specific animal in the days of Nahr is Qurbani.

The Qurbani is the sunnat of Sayeduna Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam). Muslims were told to do Qurbani, Allah Tabaraka wa Ta’la says:

110:2
Therefore offer prayer for your Lord, and do the sacrifice. (Quran 110:2)

Ahadith and Aasar

Hadith 1: Sayeduna Zaid bin Arqam Radi Allahu anhu narrates the Sahabae Kiram asked the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam), “Ya Rasool Allah, what is Qurabani?”
He (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “This is the Sunnat of your father Ibraheem (Alahis Salaam).”
Sahaba said, “Ya Rasool Allah, what sawaab will we get in this?”
He (Swallal Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “A virtue for every hair (on the animal).”
(Ahmad, Ibnu Majah)

Hadith 2: Sayedatuna Aisha (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that Rasool Allah said, “There is no dearer deed of Ibne Adam in the days of Qurbani than flowing the blood (doing Qurbani) and that animal will come with his horns, hairs, and hooves on the day of Qayamt. Thee blood of the Qurbani reaches the stage of acceptance before it reaches the floor. (Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah)

Hadith 3: Sayeduna Abu Hurairah (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Whoever has the means and does not do Qurbani should not come near our place of Eid. (Ibnu Majah)

Hadith 4: Sayeduna Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “The wealth which is spent on Qurbani on the day of Eid, there is no dearer wealth than it. (Tabrani)

Hadith 5: Imam Ahmad (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “The best Qurbani is the one which expensive in price and very fat. (Imam Ahmad)

Hadith 6: Sayeduna Ali (Karam Allahu wajahaul kareem) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Four animals are not proper for Qurbani:

1) One eyed whose one eyedness is evident
2) Ill whose illness is visible
3) Crippled whose crippled ness is visible
4) Thin whose bones don’t have marrow

(Imam Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawood, Nasaee, Ibnu Majah, Darmi)

Hadith 7: Sayeduna Ali (Karam Allahu wajahaul kareem) narrates that, “Rasool Allahu (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) stopped us from Qurbani of [an animal whose] ears are cut and horns are broken. (Imam Ahmad, Ibnu Majah)

Hadith 8: Sayeduna Abdullah Ibn Masood (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “In Qurbani, a cow is from seven and a camel is from seven.” (Tabrani)

Hadith 9: Sayeduna Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Rasool Allah (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) stopped us from Qurbani in the night.”

Hadith 10: Sayedatuna Ume Salma (Radi Allahu anha) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “When you see the moon of Zul Hijjah and any one of you wants to do Qurbani, he should stop from shaving or cutting his hair and trimming his nails. (Muslim)

Hadith 11: Sayeduna Abdullah Ibn Umar (Radi Allahu anhu) narrates that the Beloved Prophet (Swall Allahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I have been ordered for the Yaumul Adha (The Day of Adha), Allah has made this day an Eid for the ummat.

A man asked, “Ya Rasool Allah, tell me if I have no animal besides a maneeha, so can I do Qurbani with it?
He said, “No, but cut your hair, nails, and mustache and shave the hair below the navel, in this your Qurbani will be fulfilled near Allah.” (Abu Dawood, Nisaee)

That is, whoever does not have the means to do Qurbani will get the reward for Qurbani by doing these things.

 

Some Important Masail

Masala 1: With regard to Qurbani, sahibul Nisaab is the person who

A) Owns 52 ½ taula of silver (612.4 grams, 19.75 ounces) or 7 ½ taula of gold
(87.48 grams, 2.82 ounces)
B) Or owns the equivalent of the price of these in business possessions or non-business possessions
C) Or owns equivalent of naqd [cash] or money

And the owned possessions are more than the hajate asalia [explaned in Masala 2].

Masala 2: Hajate asalia, that is, the things which are necessary to for a livelihood. Possessions of these things does not make Qurbani nor Zakat wajib. Like the house to live in, the clothes to wear in the summer and winter, possessions the household, animals or cars for transportation, equipment for work, and books for the people of knowledge.

Masala 3: By books it is meant the Quran, Hadith, Usool of Hadith, Usool of Fiqh, Ilm Kalaam, Akhlaq, and other religious books. Just like this, books of medicine are hajate asalia for a doctor.

Masala 4: Besides this, more than copy of books such as religious books, Nahw, Sarf, Nujoom, Stories, Deewan, and other books are not hajate asalia. If their value reaches nisab then Qurbani is wajib.

Masala 5: Quran Majeed is not hajate asalia for a Hafiz.

Masala 6: Qurbani is not wajib on a musafir (traveler) even if he is wealthy. Although, if he wishes to do Qurbani for Nafl reward then he may do so.

Masala 7: If a woman has jewelry given to her by her father or any other possessions which she owns which reaches the value of nisab then Qurbani is wajib on her also. This is the order of every year.

Masala 8: If a Malikun Nisaab (owner of Nisaab) does Qurbani in his name at one time and if he is a malikun nisaab the next year then it is wajib on him to do Qurbani [for that year]. This is the order of every year. (Tirmizi)

Masala 9: If malikun nisaab person does Qurbani in someone else’s name besides himself and not in his name then he is a grave sinner. So, if one wants to Qurbani for someone else then he should make arrangements for another Qurbani for the other person.

 

Animals of Qurbani

Masala 10: Male or female camel, cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, and ram are all permissible.

Masala 11: A camel must of 5 years, a cow and buffalo of 2 years, a goat, sheep, and ram of 1 year. If the animal is younger than this then qurbani is not permissible, if older than this then it is permissible, in fact it is better. However, if the six-month old offspring of sheep or ram is so big that from looking from afar the sheep or ram looks like a year old then it is permissible.

Masala 12: It is wajib for a sahibun nisaab to slaughter one goat or to slaughter a seventh of camel, cow, and buffalo, it is not permissible to slaughter less than one seventh of the animal.

Masala 13: To slaughter more than a seventh is permissible such as five or six persons slaughtering a cow or buffalo, rather, one person may do qurbani of a whole cow.

 

The Days of Qurbani

Masala 14: The time for Qurbani is from the dusk of dawn on the 10th of Zul Hijjah to the sunset of the 12th of Zul Hijjah, that is, two days and three nights.

Masala 15: The best date for Qurbani is the 10th of Zul Hijjah, then 11th, and then the 12th.

Masala 16: It is not Jaiz (permissible) to do Qurbani before the Salah of Eid in the city.

 

The Ahkam of Meat and Skin

Masala 17: One may eat the meat of Qurbani himself or give it to a poor or wealthy person or feed them, rather, it is mustahab (better) that the one who has done the Qurbani also eats some from the Qurabni.

Masala 18: It is best for the one who will do Qurbani that to not eat or drink anything from dusk of dawn on the 10th of Zul Hijjah and when the Qurbani is done, he eat from it’s meat.

Masala 19: It is better to divide the meat into three parts in such a way that one for the Fuqaraa and Masakeen (the poor and needy), one part for the friends and relatives, and one part for his own household. If the household persons are many then he my feed all of the meat to his household.

Masala 20: If one did Qurbani on behalf of a deceased person then he may eat the meat himself and feed it to his friends and relatives, that is, if the deceased had not made waseeah (willed) this Qurbani otherwise give all in Sadqa.

Masala 21: If the Qurbani is done because of a mannat (vow) then one can not eat the meat himself nor can he feed to the wealthy rather it is wajib to give it in Sadqa, the vower my be a wealthy or poor person.

Masala 22: It is not permissible to give the meat to a Kafir.

Masala 23: It is not permissible to give the leather or meat or any part of it to the butcher or to the one who did the slaughter (for you) as a payment.

 

Leather of Qurbani

Masala 24: It is not permissible to sell the leather/skin of the Qurbani and bring the money into personal use. However, one may use the leather/skin for personal use.

Masala 25: Many people give the skin to religious Madarsas which is a afdal(best) and the means of getting great reward. At times, it is difficult to send the skin to the madarsas so people sell the skin and send the money to the madarsas which is also no problem.

 

The Way of Zabh (Slaughter)

Masala 26: Four arteries are to be cut whilst slaughtering. If three of the four arteries are cut or most of the each four arteries are cut then the slaughterd is Halal.

Masala 27: If one purposely did not say Arabic text (that is, did not take the name of Allah) then the animal is haraam. If he forgot then the animal is halal

Masala 28: If one handed over the animal to the butcher before completely slaughtering the animal then the butcher must also say Arabic text before proceeding with slaughtering the animal.

Masala 29: To slaughter in such a way that the knife reaches the haraam magz (spinal cord ) or that the head comes off is makrooh (undesirable) but the animal can be eaten, that is, the undesirability is with this action not with the zabeeha (slaughter).

Masala 30: The same order applies for a woman as does for a man, that is, the slaughter of a woman (performed by a woman) is permissible.
Masala 31: The slaughter of a Mushrik or Murtad (performed by them) is dead and haraam.

 

The Way of Qurbani

Place the animal of Qurbani on the left side in such a way that its’ face is towards the Qibla and put the left leg on its side. And say this duaa before slaughtering:

 

Then slaughter the animal with a sharp knife whilst reading:

Zabeeha

If the Qurbani is for oneself then read the following duaa after the zabh (slaughter):

Dua Adha

If the Qurbani is on another’s behalf then in the above arabic dua replace with , then the name of the person

If the animal is shared then read the duaa by writing it down like so:

Lailat-ul-Qadr - The night of Power

Contributed by: Hadrat Sardar Ahmad Naqshbandi Group
Additions by: Faqeer Shafiq Malaysia

In this night (27th of Ramadan), the Holy Quran was sent down from LOH-E-MEHFOOZ (the Preserved Tablet) to the earth. Messenger of ALLAH (Blessings of Allah and peace be on him) told us to search for Shab-e-Qadr in the odd numbered nights, in the last ten days of Ramzan. So, the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th night of Ramadan could be Shab-e-Qadr.

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that Rasool Allah peace be upon him said, "Look for Lailat-Ul-Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadhan." (Bukhari)

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that as much Rasool Allah peace be upon him tried (Ibadat) in the last Ashra (ten days) of Ramadhan, did not try in any of the Ashra." (Muslim)

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that I asked Rasool Allah peace be upon him, "If I find Lailatul Qadar then what should I do? HE peace be upon him said, recite this Dua."ALLAH HUMMA INNAKA A’FUVUN TOHIB BUL AFVA FA’AFU ANNI" (Tirmidhi)

Dear visitors, please take advantage of this night, from sunset till sunrise. Offer nawafil (prayers), recite QUR'AAN, do repent (Istaghfar), and Pray for pardon, recite many many Salawat (Darood Sharif & Salaam) and make benediction (Dua'as).

Special DU’AA of Lailatul QADR:
"ALLAH HUMMA INNAKA A’FUVUN TOHIB BUL AFVA FA’AFU ANNI" (Tirmidhi)
"O Allah! You are the Forgiver and You like forgiving so forgive me”

21st Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 1st night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Pray 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 cycles of 2 raka' each).
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR (Inna anzalna .. )once and Surah IKHLAS (Qul-hu-wal-lah..) once. After completion recite SALAAT-O-SALAAM (Durood Sharif) seventy (70) times.
Benefit: Insha Allah, Angels will pray for forgivenss for that person.

2) Offer 2 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t)
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS three times. After completion of this salah, recite any Astaghfar seventy times.
Astaghfar: "Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A'laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem" OR "Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh"
Benefit: Effective for forgivness of sins.

3) In this night (21st), recite Surah QADR 21 times.

23rd Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 2nd night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS three times.
Benefit: Effective for forgivness of sins.

2) Offer 8 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (4 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR and Surah IKHLAS once. After completion of this salah (namaaz) recite the third kalima (Kalima Tamjeed) 70 times. After that, plead to Allah Almighty for forgiveness of sins.
Kalima Tamjeed: "Subhan Allahi Wal Hamdu Lillahi Wa La ilaaha illal laho Walla Hu Akbar.Wala Haowla Wala Quwwata illa Billa Hil Aliyil Azeem".
Benefit: Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), Allah will forgive whoever performs this prayer

3) In the 23rd night recite Surah YAASEEN once and Surah RAHMAAN once.

25th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 3rd night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) In this night offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
After Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR one time and Surah IKHLAS five times in each raka’. After completion of this salat recite the first Kalima Tayyab 100 times.
Kalima Tayyab: "Laa ilaaha illal Laho Mohammadur Rasoolullah".
Benifit: Insha Allah, Allah Tala will give him/her unlimited Sawab (good Deeds)

2) Offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR three times and Surah IKHLAS three times. After completion of this salah, recite any Astaghfar 70 times.
Astaghfar: "Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A'laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem" OR "Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh"
Benefit: This salat is good for the pardoning of sins.

3.Offer two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka', after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS fifteen times. After Salat, recite the second Kalima (Kalima-e-Shahaadat) 70 times.
Kalima Shaadat: "Ashadu Anlaa ilaaha illal Lahu Wa Ash Hadu Anna Mohammadan Abduhu Wa Rasoolohu".
Benefit: The reward of this namaaz is freedom from the punishment of the grave.

4) Recite Surah Dukhan. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah) they will be granted freedom from the punishment of grave.

5) Recite Surah Fath seven times. Beneficial for the fulfillment of desires and wishes.

27th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 4th night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) In the 27th night, pray 12 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (3 set of 4 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IIKHLAS fifteen times. After salah recite any Astaghfar 70 times.
Astaghfar: "Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A'laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem" OR "Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh"
Benefit: Inhsa Allah, Allah tala will give sawab equal to Ibadah of Ambiya Karam's (Messengers of Allah) Ibadah.

2) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR 3 times and Surah IKHLAS 27 times, and plead to Allah for the forgiveness of sins.
Benefit: Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), the Allah Almighty will forgive all their previous sins.

3) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah TAKAASUR once and Surah IKHLAS three times.
Benefit: Whoever offers this salah, they will be saved from hardship at the time of death, and Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), they will be freed from the punishment of the grave.

4) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surahh FATIHA, recite Surah IKHLAS seven times and after salah recite this seventy times:
"ASTAGHFIRUL LAA HAL AZEEMAL LAZEE LAA ILAAHA ILLA HUWAL HAIY YUL QAYYOOMU WA ATOOBU ILAIH"
Benfit: Before the person gets up from the praying area, Allah Almighty will pardon them and their parents, and Allah Almighty will Command the angels to adorn the Paradise for them and it is said that they will not die until they see the blessings (ne'mat) of Paradise with their own eyes.

5) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah ALAM’NASHRAH once, Surah IKHLAS three times and after salah, recite Surah QADR 27 times.
Benefit: Effecive for unlimited Sawab of Ibadah.

6) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (1 set of 4 raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA' recite Surah QADR three times and Surah IKHLAS fifty times and after completion of this salah (namaaz), recite this once in prostration (sajdah):
"SUBHAAN ALLAAHI WAL HAMDU LILLAAHI WALAA ILAAHA ILLAL LAAHU WALLAA HU AKBAR"
Benefit: After that whatever wish one may have, either worldly or religious, may be pleased. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), their supplication will be fulfilled.

7) In this night, recite Surah Mulk 7 times. It is good for freeing from punishment.

29th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak - 5th night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In every raka’, after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR once and Surahh IKHLAS three times. After salah, recite Surah ALAM’NASHRAH 70 times.
Benefit: Efective for the completion of Imaan.

2) Offer four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS five times. After salah, recite SALAAT-O-SALAAM (Darood Sharif) 100 times.
Benefit: Effective for forgiveness of sins.

3) Recite Surah WAAQIAH seven times. Beneficial for increase in Rizq.

In any night of RAMAZAN-UL-MUBARAK, after taraavih recite Surah QADR seven times. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), the one who does so, will be saved from all troubles and afflictions.

Zakaat

Zakaat is one of the five pillars of Islam. It has been mentioned, along with daily Prayers (Salaah), seventy times in the Qur'an. Allah's Word commanding "... and establlsh regular Salaat and give regular Zakaat" are referred to in many parts of the Qur'an. From this we can conclude that after Salaat, Zakaat is the most important act in Islam.

The following are some verses from the Holy Qur'an and some Ahadith showing the importance and benefits of Zakaat.

Verses from the Holy Qur'an:

  1. The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is that of a grain of corn. It grows seven ears and each ear has hundred grains. Allah increases manifold to whom He pleases." (al-Baqarah:261)
     

  2. By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you give (freely) of that which you love; and Allah knows well whatever you give". (Aal-i-lmran: 92)
     

  3. "And nothing do you spend in the least (in His cause) but He replaces it, for He is the Best of those who grant Sustenance." (Sabaa: 39)
     

  4. "And let not those who covetously withhold of the gifts, which Allah has given them of His Grace, think that it is good for them. No, it will be worse for them. Soon shall the things, which they covetously withheld, be tied to their necks like a twisted collar, on the Day of Judgment. To Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth. And Allah knows all that you do." (Aal-i-lmran: 180)
     

  5. "Of their good take alms, so that you might purify and sanctify them �" (Tauba: 103)

Ahadith-e-Mubarakah:

  1. Hazrat Umar Farooq (radi Allahu anhu) narrated that our beloved Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that the loss of wealth that one suffers on land or sea is due to not paying Zakaat. (Tibraani)
     

  2. Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) narrated that our beloved Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that three persons would enter the Hell first. One of them, is the person who does not give Allah's rightful share (Zakaat & Sadaqah) from his wealth. (Ibn-e-Khazema & Habaan)
     

  3. Hazrat Abu Hurairah (radi Allahu anhu) narrated that our beloved Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that wealth does not decrease when you give Sadaqah; and Allah increases the esteem of the one who forgives other people's mistakes; and Allah raises the status of the one who practices humbleness for His sake. (Bukhari & Muslim)
     

  4. Hazrat Abu Ayyub (radi Allahu anhu) narrated that a man asked the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) about a deed that would take him to Heaven. Our beloved Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) replied: Pray to Allah. Do not commit Shirk (do not hold any partners with Him), keep performing Salaah, give Zakaat, and be kind to everyone. (Riyad-us-Saliheen)
     

  5. Hazrat Abdullah bin Masu'd (radi Allahu anhu) has said that we were commanded to perform Salaah and give Zakaat, and that Salah is not accepted of the person who does not give Zakaat despite eligibility. (Tibraani)
     

  6. Bazzaz narrated from Hazrat Alqamah (radi Allahu anhu) reporting that our beloved Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has said that the completion of one's Islam is dependent upon giving away Zakaat from one's wealth.

It is stated in the Hadith that by giving Zakaat the following benefits are derived:

  1. Gain the pleasure of Allah,
     

  2. Increase in wealth and protection from losses,
     

  3. Allah's forgiveness and blessings,
     

  4. Protection from the wrath of Allah and from a bad death,
     

  5. A shelter on the Day of Judgment,
     

  6. Security from seventy misfortunes.

Just as Salaat is the most important act of worship, which has to be performed bodily, so is Zakaat the main act of worship which has to be performed monetarily. Those who fulfill this duty have been promised abundant reward in this world and Hereafter. Whoever evades Zakaat has been sternly warned in the Qur'an and Hadith of the consequences.

Linguistically, Zakaat has two meanings: purification and growth. Technically, it means to purify one's possession of wealth by distributing a prescribed amount to the poor, the indigent, the slaves or captives, and the wayfarer.

Major benefits of giving Zakaat:

  1. It reminds Muslims of the fact that whatever wealth they may possess is due to the blessings of Allah and as such it is to be spent according to His Commands.
     

  2. Zakaat functions as a social security for all. Those who have enough money today pay for what they have. If they need money tomorrow they will get what is necessary to help them live decently.
     

  3. The Zakaat payer pays his dues to Allah as an act of worship, a tof submission and an acknowledgment of gratitude. The receiver of Zakaat receives it as a grant from Allah out of His bounty, a favour for which he is thankful to Allah.
     

  4. Economically, Zakaat is the best check against hoarding. Those who do not invest their wealth but prefer to save or hoard it would see their wealth dwindling year after year at the rate of the payable Zakaat. This helps increase production and stimulates supply because it is a redistribution of income that enhances the demand by putting more real purchasing power in the hands of poor.

Zakaat is obligatory upon a person if:

  1. He or she is an adult, sane, free and Muslim.
     

  2. He/she must possess wealth in excess of specified minimum (Nisaab) excluding his or her personal needs (clothing, household furniture, utensils, cars etc. are termed article of personal needs).
     

  3. It should be possessed for a complete lunar year.
     

  4. It should be of productive nature from which one can derive profit or benefit such as merchandise for business, gold, silver, livestock etc.

The amount of wealth, which makes one liable for Zakaat, is called Nisaab. The Nisaab as fixed by Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is as follows:

  1. Gold: 87.48 (grams) or 7.5 Tolas
     

  2. Silver: 612.36 (grams) or 52.5 Tolas
     

  3. Nisaab of cash, stock or bonds, other cash assets is the equivalent amount of Gold or Silver.
     

  4. Nisaab is calculated by adding up the cash value of all the assets such as gold, silver, currency, etc. and if it is equal to or in excess of the minimum Nisaab as specified in the above table, the Zakaat is due at the rate of 2.5%.
     

  5. The payment of Zakast is compulsory on the excess wealth or effects which is equal to or exceeds the value of Nisaab, and which is possessed for a full Islamic year. If such wealth decreases during the course of the year and increases again to the value of Nisaab before the end of the year, the Zakaat then must be calculated on the full amount that is possessed at the end of the year.

TYPES OF WEALTH ON WHICH ZAKAAT ARE IMPOSED:

  1. Gold and silver, in any form
     

  2. Cash, bank notes, stocks, bonds etc.
     

  3. Merchandise for business, equal to the value of Nisaab
     

  4. Livestock
     

  5. On income derived from rental business

CALCULATION OF ZAKAAT

  1. To calculate Zakaat on jewelry, etc. one must first determine the gold or silver content and then calculate the Zakaat according to current market price.
     

  2. If the Gold possessed is less than 87.48 grams or if silver possessed is less then 612.36 grams, but the value of both combined is equal to or exceeds the Nisaab of either Gold or Silver, the Zakaat will be due.
     

  3. In the event of an article not being of pure gold or pure silver, but containing a mixture of other metals and the gold or silver content is more than the other metal, it will be regarded as gold or silver and Zakaat will be due. But in the case where other metal/s is of greater quantity than either gold or silver, Zakaat will not be due on this article.
     

  4. For stocks (shares held in a company), Zakaat is calculated based upon the current market value. As machinery, land, fixtures and fittings, furniture, buildings etc. are exempt from Zakaat, one is allowed to subtract these from the total asset. This could be obtained from annual reports. For example, if one has shares worth R1000 and machinery, land etc., are worth 5% of the total asset, then deduct R50 for these assets, afterwards deduct the liabilities of the company proportionately to the percentage of shares held. Zakaat must be calculated on the balance.

DISTRIBUTION OF ZAKAAT

  1. Zakaat should be given as soon as possible after it becomes due.
     

  2. All of the Zakaat can be given to one person or to several persons.
     

  3. A poor man cannot be paid for his work from Zakaat nor can Zakaat be given in payment of services, except to the people appointed by the Islamic government to collect Zakaat.
     

  4. Zakaat will only be valid if the recipient is made the owner of that amount. If, for example, a few needy persons are fed a meal from Zakaat money, then Zakaat will not be fulfilled as they were not made owners of the food.
     

  5. Zakaat cannot be given for the construction of Masjid, Madrasah, Hospital, a well, a bridge or any other public amenity.
     

  6. Zakaat can be paid in kind from the same merchandise on which it is due, or alternatively, it could be paid in cash.

TYPES OF WEALTH ON WHICH ZAKAAT ARE NOT IMPOSED:

  1. On any metals other than gold or silver.
     

  2. Fixtures and fittings of a shop, car, trucks or any delivery vehicle etc., which is used in running business.
     

  3. Diamonds, pearls, other precious or semi-precious stones, which are for personal use.
     

  4. There is no Zakaat on personal residence, household furniture, pots and pan, personal clothing, whether they are in use or not.
     

  5. There is no Zakaat on a person whose liabilities exceeds or equals his assets. Some Mortgage in this country is not to be counted as personal liability for the Zakaat purpose.

RECIPIENTS OF ZAKAAT:

The recipients of Zakaat, according to Qur'an are as follows: "Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer (the funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to truth); for those in bondage and in debt; and for the wayfarer: (Thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of Knowledge and Wisdom." (Qur'an 9:60)

  1. FUQARA: people who are poor and who possess more than their basic needs but do not possess wealth equal to Nisaab.
     

  2. MASAKEEN: people who are destitute and extremely needy to the extent they are forced to beg for their daily food rations.
     

  3. AL-AMILEEN: people appointed by an Islamic Government to collect Zakaat.
     

  4. MU-ALLAFATU-QULUB: persons who have recently accepted Islam and are in need of basic necessities who would benefit from encouragement by Muslims which would help strengthen their faith.
     

  5. AR-RIQAAB: slaves who are permitted to work for remuneration and have an agreement from their masters to purchase their freedom on payment of fixed amounts.
     

  6. AL-GHAARIMEEN: persons who have a debt and do not possess any other wealth or goods with which they could repay that which they owe. It is conditional that this debt was not created for any un-Islamic purpose.
     

  7. FI-SABILILLAH: persons who have to carry out an obligatory deed which has become obligatory on them and subsequently (due to loss of wealth) are unable to complete that obligation.
     

  8. IBN-US-SABEEL: persons who are travelers and during the course of their journey do not possess basic necessities, though they are well to do at home. They could be given Zakaat in order to fulfill travel needs to return home.

PERSONS WHO CANNOT BE GIVEN ZAKAAT:

  1. Zakaat cannot be given to the descendants of Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam);
     

  2. Zakaat cannot be given to parents and grandparents. In the same manner one's children and grandchildren cannot be given Zakaat. A husband and wife cannot give Zakaat to each other.

Zakaat contributions cannot be given to such institutions or organizations who do not give the rightful recipients possession of Zakaat, but instead use Zakaat funds for constructions, investment or salaries.

THE PUNISHMENT FOR NOT GIVING ZAKAAT:

Allah says in the Qur'an: "And there are those who hoard gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah, announce to them a most grievous penalty (when) on the Day of Judgment heat will be produced out of that wealth in the fire of Hell. Then with it they will be branded on their forehead and their flanks and backs. (It will be said to them) This is the treasure which you hoarded for yourselves, taste then the treasure that you have been hoarding."

The Message of Hajj

This is without doubt the culmination of a great festival - a festival where Muslims of all colour and language have congregated on one massive plain to celebrate the praise of their Creator, Almighty Allah. Hajj provides an opportunity to unite Muslims of the world and it also offers an ocassion to Muslims to exchange views on their mutual problems, to iron out their differences, to forge common opinions, to barter goods as well as goodwill, and to take back to their respective homelands memorable feelings of the Muslim brotherhood, of course, in addition to the innumerable blessings of Almighty Allah and the righteousness of their body and soul.  

The Hajj Pilgrimage, is one of the Pillars of Islam and one of the fundamentals of Islam. It is the completion of surrender and the day of perfection in the religion of Islam.  

It was on this day that Almighty Allah revealed the following message to the Ummah of His beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): "Today, I have perfected your religion for you and completed my grace upon you and approved Islam as your religion."  

We must understand that the basis of all actions is intention and intention without doubt bears fruit if there is sincerity, and Hajj, which is an integral part in Islam, will therefore require those who perform it to have sincerity.  

When the person intends undertaking Hajj, he severs all ties with family and home. This is a reminder to him also of the journey he will have to undertake for the Hereafter.  

As for provisions, the intending pilgrim must realise that they have been acquired in the Halaal (permissable) fashion. If a person desires to take a lot for the journey, then let him remember the journey to the Hereafter which is longer and more difficult and that the best provision for that journey will be Taqwa (Piety).  

As for transport, when the pilgrim acquires transport he should give thanks to the Almighty Creator and at the same time remember the transport that will carry him the grave and the next world, namely his Kaffan (Shroud).  

As for leaving home, the intending pilgrim should know that he is now bound for the House of Allah. He is on a journey unlike any journey. He should bear in mind where he is heading and whom he intends to visit. He should also have hope that his Hajj will be accepted, not because of the difficulties faced, but because of the trust that he has in His Creator.  

When wearing the Ihraam, the pilgrim is aware that he has heard the summons of Almighty Allah. He should possess fear and hope when considering the acceptance of his Hajj. This fear should be the fear of Almighty Allah and hope in His Mercy.  

As for touching the Hajre Aswad (Black Stone), the pilgrim should believe that he is pledging his loyalty to Almighty Allah and that he will obey the Commands of the Supreme Being. Make firm your promise and do not be like those who promise today while changing their minds tomorrow.  

When the pilgrim clings to the Khilaaf (Cloth) of the Holy Kaaba, seek forgiveness and beg for Allah's Mercy. Even the running between Saffa and Marwa must signify a slave who is running to and from the Court of a Mighty King not knowing whether he has been accepted or rejected. As for standing at Arafaat, look at the crowds following their Imaams (Leaders) and recall the sight of the Yaumal Hashr (Day of Gathering).  

After this, plead for Almighty Allah's Mercy. When you throw stones at the Shaitaan, your purpose should be obedience to your Creator. The idea is to drive Shaitaan away from you.  

Such should be the various duties of the pilgrim at all stages of the Hajj. When all acts are completed, your heart should be filled with concern, for you do not know whether your Hajj has been accepted or rejected. Yet after completion you realise that your inner and outer self has been filled with enthusiasm and love, and you have a genuine feeling of making Ibaadah, then remember that you have been placed among the chosen ones!

Hajj, Umrah & Ziyarat

The Hajj Pilgrimage, is one of the Pillars and fundamentals of Islam. It is the completion of surrender and the day of perfection of the religion of Islam. It was on this day that Almighty Allah revealed the following message to the Ummah of His beloved Prophet, Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam): "Today, I have perfected your religion for you and completed my grace upon you and approved Islam as your religion."

We must understand that the basis of all actions is intention and intention without doubt bears fruit if there is sincerity, and Hajj, which is an integral part of Islam, will therefore require those who perform it to have sincerity.

When the person intends undertaking Hajj, he severs all ties with his family and home. This is a reminder to him also of the journey he will have to undertake for the Hereafter.

As for provisions, the intending pilgrim must ensure that they have been acquired in the Halaal (permissable) manner. If a person desires to take a lot for the journey, then let him remember the journey to the Hereafter which is longer and more difficult and that the best provision for that journey will be Taqwa (Piety).

As for transport, when the pilgrim acquires transport he should give thanks to the Almighty Creator and at the same time remember the transport that will carry him the grave and the next world, namely his Kaffan (Shroud).

As for leaving home, the intending pilgrim should know that he is now bound for the House of Allah. He is on a journey unlike any other. He should bear in mind where he is heading and whom he intends to visit. He should also have hope that his Hajj will be accepted, not because of the difficulties faced, but because of the trust that he has in His Creator.

When wearing the Ihraam, the pilgrim is aware that he has heard the summons of Almighty Allah. He should possess fear and hope when considering the acceptance of his Hajj. This fear should be the fear of Almighty Allah and hope in His Mercy.

As for touching the Hajre Aswad (Black Stone), the pilgrim should believe that he is pledging his loyalty to Almighty Allah and that he will obey the Commands of the Supreme Being. Make firm your promise and do not be like those who promise today and change their minds tomorrow.

When the pilgrim clings to the Khilaaf (Cloth) of the Holy Kaaba, seek forgiveness and beg for Allah's Mercy. Even the running between Saffa and Marwa must signify a slave who is running to and from the Court of a Mighty King not knowing whether he has been accepted or rejected. As for standing at Arafaat, look at the crowds following their Imaams (Leaders) and recall the sight of the Yaumal Hashr (Day of Gathering).

After this, plead for Almighty Allah's Mercy. When you throw stones at the Shaitaan, your purpose should be obedience to your Creator. The idea is to drive Shaitaan away from you.

Such should be the various duties of the pilgrim at all stages of the Hajj. When all acts are completed, your heart should be filled with concern and hope, for you do not know whether your Hajj has been accepted or rejected. Yet after completion you realise that your inner and outer self has been filled with enthusiasm and love, and you have a genuine feeling of making Ibaadah, then remember that you have been placed among the chosen ones!

This is without doubt the culmination of a great festival - a festival where Muslims of all colour and language congregate on one massive plain to celebrate the praise of their Creator, Almighty Allah. Hajj provides an opportunity to unite Muslims of the world and it also offers to Muslims an occasion to exchange views on their mutual problems, to iron out their differences, to discuss common opinions, to exchange gifts as well as goodwill, and to take back to their respective homelands memorable feelings of the Muslim brotherhood, of course, in addition to the innumerable blessings of Almighty Allah and the new found purity of their body and soul.

The Five days of Hajj

1ST DAY - 8th Zil-Hajj : The people go to Mina from Makkatul Mukarramah in the morning after wearing the Ihraam.

2ND DAY - 9th Zil-Hajj : The people arrive at Arafaat in the morning and continue their Ibaadah. They also read their Zohar and Asar Salaah and leave for Muzdalifa just before sunset.

3RD DAY - 10th Zil-Hajj : People stay in Muzdalifa for the night and read their Maghrib and Isha Salaah together. They continue their Ibaadah the whole night. Just after Fajar Salaah, they leave for Mina. They then make Qurbaani and stone the Jamratul Uqbah. After Qurbaani, they trim or shave their hair and remove their Ihraam for ordinary clothes. Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarah is then made and Sa'ee between Saffa and Marwa. They now return to Mina.

4TH DAY - 11th Zil-Hajj : The three Jamraats are stoned.

5TH DAY - 12th Zil-Hajj : The three Jamraats are stoned again. Before leaving Makkatul Mukarramah, the Haaji will have to make the Farewell Tawaaf (Tawaaf-e-Widaa).

A visit to Madinatul Munawwarah is also necessary. This can be done before or after the Hajj. Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has said: "One who visits my grave, is like one who has visited me in my lifetime." AND "One who visits my grave, my Shafa'at becomes Waajib for him."

What is Ayyaam-e-Tashreeq

"Ayyaam-e-Tashreeq" or "The Days of Praise" are the 5 days from the 9th till the 13th of Zil-Hajj. It begins from the Fajar Salaah of the 9th and ends at the Asar Salaah of the 13th of Zil-Hajj. On these days, it is Waajib upon all Muslims to read the Takbeer-e-Tashreeq aloud once after every Fard Salaah. Females are required to read softly. It is Sunnah to read this Takbeer 3 times. The words of the Takbeer are: "Allah is Great. Allah is Great. There is none worthy of worship except Allah and Allah is Great. Allah is Great and to Allah belongs all Praise."

UMRAH: IMPORTANT MASAA'IL

The meaning of "Umrah" is "to visit." The accomplishment of Umrah at least once in a lifetime is Sunnat-e-Mu'akkadah. The Umrah performed during the auspicious month of Ramadaan supercedes that Umrah completed in other days. Bukhari Shareef states that Umrah in Ramadaan is equal to Hajj.

THE MASAA'ILS OF UMRAH CAN BE BRIEFLY SUMMARISED AS:-

  • The wearing of Ihraam before entering the Miqat boundary
     

  • The performance of two Rakaahs Sunnatul Ihraam
     

  • The recitation of Niyyah and Talbiyah
     

  • The advancement towards Makkatul Mukarramah while constantly reading the Talbiyah
     

  • The performance of Tawaaf with Idh'tibaa and Ramal
     

  • The performance of two Rakaah Waajib Salaah after Tawaaf behind Maqaam-e-Ebrahim
     

  • Advancement to the Multazam to make Du'a and drink water from the Zam Zam well
     

  • Performance of Sa'ee between Saffa and Marwa
     

  • Shaving or trimming the hair of the head.

THE FARAA'IDH OF UMRAH:

  • Ihraam
     

  • Four circuits of Tawaaf

WAAJIBAAT OF UMRAH:

  • Completion of all seven circuits
     

  • Sa'ee
     

  • Shaving/trimming of the hair.

N.B. The rest are either Sunnat or Adaab.

SEQUENCE OF PERFORMING UMRAH:

  • Adoption of Ihraam and performance of two Rakaah with Niyyah of Umrah
     

  • Tawaaf
     

  • Du'a at Multazam
     

  • Performance of two Rakaah Salaah at Maqaam-e-Ebrahim
     

  • Drinking Zam Zam water
     

  • Performing Sa'ee between Saffa and Marwa
     

  • Two Rakaah Salaah
     

  • Shaving/Trimming of the hair.

VISITING THE GRAVE OF THE PROPHET:

Visiting the grave is part of the Sunnah and is both excellent and desirable. Hazrat Ibn Umar (radi Allahu anhu) said that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "My intercession is assured for all who visit me." (at-Tabarni) Hazrat Anas bin Malik (radi Allahu anhu) said that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Anyone who visits me in Madina for the sake of Allah is near to me and I will intercede for him on the Day of Rising." (Al-Bayhaqi).

Imam Malik (radi Allahu anhu) disliked anyone saying "the tawaf of the visit," or "we visited the grave of the Prophet," because people normally use that for visits between themselves, and he did not like to put the Prophet on the same level as other people. He preferred a specific statement like "We greeted the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)." He did not dislike people saying, "We visited the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)." (Ash-Shifa)

ZIARAT - PRESENTING ONESELF THE BLESSED COURT OF THE HOLY PROPHET (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) IN MADINATUL MUNAWWARAH

To present oneself (Haaziri) at the blessed court of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is close to Waajib (compulsory). Certain people, disguising themselves as "friends", try to convince you to stay away from the Rauza-e-Anwar of Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). It is said that it is not important to go there. Beware! Never listen to their comments and do not return with the stain of being deprived of visiting Madinatul Munawwarah.

When going to Madinatul Munawwarah, make special intention of visiting Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Imam Ibn Ilhaam states that when going to Madinatul Munawwarah do not even make the intention of visiting the Masjid, but make intention of visiting the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). You should drown yourself in the recitation of Durood and Zikr throughout your entire journey. When the Haram of Madinatul Munawwarah is visible, then it is better to travel on foot. Walk towards it crying, with your head bowed, eyes lowered, and, if possible, bare feet. When the Green Dome or Ghumbade Anwar is in sight, then recite Durood and Salaams in abundance. On reaching the Blessed City, drown yourself in the thought of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

Before making Haaziri you should clear the heart of all other thoughts that are disturbing and avoid unnecessary conversation. Make wudhu (using Miswaak) and Ghusal, if possible, is better. Preferably wear white clothing and new clothes are better. Use fragrance and Surma. The best of fragrance is Musk. Now, with total love and reverence, turn towards the Roza-e-Aqdas. If you cannot cry, make a sorrowful face and force the heart to weep. Beg in the court of Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). At the entrance of the Masjid, send Durood and Salaams and then wait for a little while as if you are waiting for permission from Sarkaar-e-Madina (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Say "Bismillah" and enter with the right foot. Do so with utmost respect and reverence. When visiting the Rauza-e-Anwar, believe in your heart that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is physically alive and present just as he was before passing from the world. His demise and the demise of all the other Ambiya (alaihimus salaam) is only a split second, to fulfil the promise of Allah. Their passing away was for them just to be hidden from the eyes of the general public. Imam Muhammad ibn Haaj Makki (radi Allahu anhu) in "Madkhal", and Imam Ahmad Qastalaani (radi Allahu anhu) in "Muwaahibul Laduniyah" state, "There is no difference in the life and demise of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as he is seeing his Ummat, and he is aware of them, and he is aware of their intentions. He understands the thoughts of the hearts and all these are before the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). In this way, that there is nothing actually hidden in it."

Now at the height of respect, bow your head, lower your gaze, and shiver in the fear of Allah. Perspire in the shame of your sins, hoping and having faith in the mercy and blessing of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Present yourself at the feet of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and hope that the blessed sight of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is on you. This is sufficient for you in both the worlds. Now like the heart, the face is also towards the Jaali Mubaarak of Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which is the resting place of the beloved of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Stand with total respect and honour. With a soft voice, low gaze, ashamed, not with a harsh or loud voice (since to speak aloud in this court is disrespect and cause of destruction) and neither being too soft since it is against Sunnah (even though the Prophet is even aware of the condition of your heart, just as it was evident from the sayings of the A'imma mentioned above), say the following: "As Salaamu Alaika Ayuhan Nabiyu wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barkatuhu, As Salaamu Alaika Ya Rasolallah. As Salaamu Alaika Ya, Khairi Khalqillah. Asalaamu Alaika Ya Shafi Al Muznabeen, As Salaamu Alaika Wa Ala Aalika wa Ashaabika Wa Um'matika Ajmaeen."

Ask for Shafa'at (Intercession) from Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) for your parents, Ustaads, Peer-o-Murshid, respected ones, friends, relatives and all Muslims. Continuously say, "As Alukash Shafa'ata Ya Rasoolallah." If someone asked you to convey their Salaams, then do so. May Almighty Allah accept the Ziyaarat of all those of visit the Rauza-e-Anwar of Huzoor-e-Akram (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Ameen.

ASK THE AALIM

Question: If any act was not done correctly or mistakenly during the Hajj and Umrah, can the Dam be given outside the precincts of the sacred Haram?

Answer: If it is Waajib to give Dam for the mistakes made during Hajj and Umrah, then that animal of Dam should be slaughtered in the Haram. If the animal is slaughtered outside the precinct of the Haram, Dam will not be regarded as valid.

Question: If a person who performed Umrah did not shave his head and returned to his country, what should he do?

Answer: He should shave his head and give Dam.

SAUDI AUTHORITIES AND THEIR ULAMA ARE CONSPIRING TO CHANGE THE TIMES OF RAMI-E-JAMRAT DURING THE HAJJ

THE MUSLIM UMMAH SHOULD UNITE IN OPPOSING THIS RULE AS IT IS AN OPEN BID'AH (INNOVATION). SAUDIS SHOULD DISCUSS THIS MATTER WITH THE ULAMA AND SCHOLARS OF THE MUSLIM UMMAH WORLD-WIDE AND SEEK A SOLUTION TO THE STAMPEDING PROBLEM AS OFFERED BY THE SHARI'AH.

It has been reported in the Saudi news media that the times of the Rami-e-Jamrat (Stoning of Shaitaan) are to be changed by the Saudi Government. In their view, they consider it permissable within the framework of Shari'ah to change this time. They believe that in doing so, it would prevent congestion, ease the whole process and prevent the recurrence of the stampedes which took place in the past.

It is reported in the newspaper, "Al-Hayaat", that the normal period in which the pelting of the Shaitaan takes place, that is, after Zawaal on the 11th and 12th of Zil-Hijjah, would now be changed to begin from after the Fajr on the same days.

The Saudi Ulama propose to issue and publish a Fatwa prior to the Hajj of 1419 A.H. (in 1999) to make way for the changes. If this goes ahead as they plan, this will constitute a great Bid'ah (Innovation). From the time of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the established proceedure for Rami-e-Jamrat throughout the ages, including the period of the four Righteous Imams, to this day, had been the stoning of the Shaitaan from after Zawaal on the 11th and 12th of Zil-Hijjah.

The rules and the laws governing Hajj has been established by Shari'ah. The manner in which Rasool-e-Paak (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) directed the proceedure of Rami-e-Jamrat during Hajjat-ul-Wida, as far as the time, manner and sequence is concerned, is the same proceedure followed through the ages, which we should follow through.

This proceedure is also verified in Bukhari Shareef (Vol. 1), Sahih Muslim (Vol. 1) and Abu Dawud (Vol. 1) under the section, "Kitaabul Manaasik". In Bukhari Shareef, Vol. 2, pg. 464, Hadith 134, in the Chapter, "To do the Rami of the Jamir", it is stated: Hazrat Jaabir (radi Allahu anhu) said, "The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) did the Rami on the Day of Nahr (10th Zil-Hajjah) before noon, and then (on the 11th and 12th of Zil-Hijjah) he did the Rami after Zawaal (after the decline of the sun)".

The sequence, the place and the manner of carrying out the Arkan of Hajj should be executed in exactly the same manner as was shown to the Ummah by Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). This is an obligatory act prescribed by Shari'ah.

In the same manner that it is not permissable to bring about changes in the proceedure of Hajj with regards to the rituals, it is also not permissable to change the times of carrying out the rituals from that which was shown to us by Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

The majority of the Saudis claim to be the followers of Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu), who himself did not deviate from the times and ritual proceedures as mentioned above. This is evident in the Kitaab of the Hambali Madhab known as "Al Mugni" by Ibne Qadama, Vol. 3, pg. 452, where it is stated that, "On the Days of Tashreeq, Rami is not permissable before Zawaal. If it is done before Zawaal, then it has to be repeated after Zawaal" (to conform with Shari'at).

The reason for recurring stampedes in the Rami area is because the Hujjaj fail to exercise discipline and opt for rushing through the proceedure. It has been stated that the stampedes that have occurred in the past took place on the 10th or 13th of Zil-Hajj. To carry out Rami on the 10th before Zawaal is Sunnat, although the period extends till sunset without violating the Laws of the Shari'ah. If for some excusable reason, the stoning of the Jamrat takes place at night, then it is not Makrooh.

The real solution to the problem of delaying the Rami, as indicated above, may be done within the framework of the Shari'ah. In instituting any changes in Shar'an times of Rami, the Saudi Government would be causing a major interference with the Shari'ah and this could lead to Fitna.

In order to address this issue, it is imperative that the Hujaaj be administered with proper training and be made familiar with the details of Hajj prior to going for Hajj. It is of utmost importance in the interest of upholding the principles of the Shari'ah that the Muslim Ummah, Ulama and masses, unite and vehemently object and put an end to the Saudi Government's attempted blatant violation of Shari'ah proceedures as was shown to us by Rasool-e-Paak (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)

EID-ul-Adha & Qurbani

Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran, Chapter 22 Verse 34 :"And to every nation we have appointed acts of devotion (sacrifice) that they may mention the name of Allah on what He has given them of the cattle quadrupeds; and your God is one God, therefore to Him should you submit, and give good news to the humble whose hearts tremble when Allah is mentioned, and those who are patient under that which afflicts them".

The act of sacrificing an animal is regarded as affecting the heart, as it is connected with righteousness, with submission to Allah, with humbleness of the heart, and patience under sufferings. So when one slaughters with the proper accompanying Intention and not for the sole purpose of eating the flesh on this occasion, one is again complying with the laws in the Holy Quran and completes yet another of the pillars of Islam. The animal sacrificed is symbolic of the animal in man (man's nature). So, when he slaughters, he is reminded of the necessity to eliminate that "animal nature" which he has within him. It actually signifies the sacrifice of the sacrificer himself, and becomes the outward symbol of his readiness to lay down his life in the cause of the Supreme Creator of the universe.

This sacrifice by the Muslims throughout the world on this particular occasion, is intended to let Muslim hearts beat in unison with the hundreds of thousands who have gone on Pilgrimage to Mecca (which is also a pillar of Islam and is compulsory on Muslims who can afford going there). They re-enact, as it were, the beautiful incident of old, where Almighty Allah had commanded Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) to sacrifice his then only son. On finding him obedient and prepared to act on His command, Allah submitted a ram for him to slaughter instead of his beloved son.

Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) confirmed this act, and always covered his head with respect during sacrifice. He would lay the animal down and gently stroke it, then, placing his foot on the body and uttering the words "In the name of Allah, Allah is Great. O Allah! This is a sacrifice from You and is for You" he would speedily severe its throat, allowing the blood to flow readily with the least possible pain to the animal.

The sacrifice is done after the I'd prayer is over . The chosen animal must be free from any apparent physical defect and must be fully grown and healthy. In the case of a goat or sheep, one suffices, but if it a camel or cow, seven may be partners thereto.

Because many poor and beggars in the community cannot afford to sacrifice, this occasion allows for charity, and when the sacrifice is over the meat is divided as is necessary (one third minimum be allotted for distribution to the poor), the meat is delivered to the homes of the poor so that they too can enjoy and participate on this day of festival.

As Islam does not permit wastage, whatever is left over of the meat may be dried, cured or prepared, so long as it is consumed and not wasted. The skin also must be disposed of and the funds used for charity.

Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran, Chapter 22 Verse 37:"Nor their flesh, nor their blood, reaches Allah,but to Him is acceptable observance of duty on your part".

 

QURBANI: SOME IMPORTANT MASAA'IL

 

WHY SHOULD ONE MAKE QURBANI?

According to Tirmizi Shareef and Sunan Ibn Majah, Hazrat Ayesha (radi Allahu anha) stated that Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "The son of Adam does not do any action on the day of Qurbani which is more pleasing to Allah than the sacrifice of animals; and he will come on the day of Qiyamah with it's hairs, horns and hooves (for reward); and the blood (of the sacrificed animal) certainly reaches Allah before it falls down to the ground. So make yourselves purified therewith."

In another Hadith related in Sunan Ibn Majah, Zaid bin Arqam reported that the companions of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) asked, "Oh! Messenger of Allah, what is this sacrifice?" He said, "The way of your forefather (Prophet) Ibrahim (alaihis salaam)." They said, "What is for us therein, O! Messenger of Allah?" He said, "There is one reward for every hair." They said, "For wool, O! Messenger of Allah?" He said, "There is one reward for every strand of wool!"

WHEN MUST QURBANI BE MADE?

  • Qurbani or Sacrifice is carried out from the 10th of Zil- Hijjah (i.e. from the day of Eid-ul-Adha) after the completion of the Eid Salaah and Khutba, till sunset on the 12th of Zil- Hijjah. The times of preference for Qurbani are the first day, i.e. the 10th of Zil-Hijjah from the completion of the Eid Salaah, followed by the second day and lastly the third day.
     

  • If for some reason, animals purchased for Qurbani are not slaughtered in the time and duration of the Qurbani period, i.e. 10th, 11th & 12th of Zil-Hijjah, then such animals must be donated alive to charity.

WHO SHOULD MAKE QURBANI?

  • It is Waajib for every Muslim male and Muslim female who:-
     

    1. has attained puberty (Baaligh)
       

    2. is of sound mind (not insane)
       

    3. possesses Nisaab for that moment in time, not necessarily for one Islamic calendar year (Nisaab is the value of excess wealth which makes a Muslim liable for Zakaah i.e. The possession of, or equivalent capital value of seven and half tolas gold (+ -3 ounces) or fifty two tolas of silver (+ - 20 ounces)
       

    4. To make sacrifice in the Name of Allah
       

  • It is Waajib according to Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa (radi Allahu anhu) and Sunnat-e-Mu'akidda according to other Imams for Muslims to make Qurbani.
     

  • It is Waajib only for each Muslim male and female to make Qurbani for himself or herself; and not Waajib for him or her to make Qurbani for any other member of his or her family. It is only his or her duty to guide or instruct them to make Qurbani if they meet with the conditions of item in 1. above.
     

  • In the same manner as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr, Qurbani is a Waajib obligation for Muslims every year on the occasion of Eid-ul-Adha. It is not a once in a life-time duty.
     

  • It is permissible to make Qurbani in the name of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his Ummah or any other deceased Muslim as a Nafil Qurbani on condition that the person making the Nafil Qurbani has discharged his obligation in his own Waajib Qurbani first.
     

  • It is not Waajib or necessary for the following people to make Qurbani:-
     

    1. one who has not attained puberty (not Baaligh) even if he or she possesses Nisaab.
       

    2. A traveller (who is not yet Muqeem).
       

    3. One who does not possess Nisaab during that specific period in time.
       

    4. On who may be in possession of Nisaab bit has turned insane.
       

  • Any Muslim male or female who is not liable for Qurbani but purchases an animal for Qurbani for the sake of Almighty Allah, then the Qurbani becomes Waajib for him.
     

  • Qurbani cannot be undertaken on behalf of another person upon who Qurbani is Waajib, without his or her prior consent.

WHAT ANIMALS MUST BE USED FOR QURBANI?

  • Only the following animals may be sacrificed for Qurbani:-
     

    1. Goat and Sheep with a minimum of 1 year each.
       

    2. Cattle with a minimum of 2 years.
       

    3. Camels with a minimum of 5 years.
       

  • Each goat or sheep suffices for Qurbani for one Muslim male or female; whereas each head of cattle or camel could represent the Qurbani for seven Muslim males and females, provided that:-
     

    1. All seven participants have uniformity in Niyyah (i.e. either Qurbani or Aqeeqah).
       

    2. All seven have an equal share, nobody is to have a larger portion than another even at the time of the distribution of the meat.
       

  • It is permissible for less than seven people to have shares in a camel or a head of cattle for Qurbani; but not permissible for more than 7 people to do so.

WHAT TYPE OF DEFECTIVE ANIMALS ARE TO BE AVOIDED?

The animals for Qurbani in the Name of Almighty Allah shall be in prime condition of health and free from defects. The following defects in animals disqualifies them from being used for Qurbani:-

  • Animals without ears or more than one third of the ear is defective, partially blind (one third or more), or totally blind animals; animals with horns broken from the root; animals that have most or all their teeth missing; animals which have limbs broken or used three legs to walk; animals with a third or more or their tail cut off.
     

  • Sick and emaciated animals that lack the ability to move or walk.

WHO SHOULD MAKE ZABAH OR SLAUGHTER AND WHAT IS TO BE RECITED?

  • Owners of Qurbani animals, whether male or female, who have the knowledge of making Zabah should slaughter their own animals.
     

  • If other persons are appointed to slaughter on their behalf, then it is better for the owners of the Qurbani animals to be present at the place and time of slaughter.
     

  • Before slaughtering, the following Dua should be recited: "Inni wajjahtu wajhiya lillazi fataras samawaati wal arda hanifaw wa maaa ana minal mushrikeen. Inna salaati wanusuki wa mahyaya wamamati lillahi rabbil a'lameen. La sharika lahu wabizaalika umirtu wa ana minal muslimeen. Allahumma minka walak."
     

  • The person should then slaughter the animal reading: "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar."
     

  • This Dua must also be read: "Allahumma takabalhu minni kama takabalta min habeebika Muhammadiw wa Khaleelika Ibraheema alayhimas salaatu was salaamu."

SOME IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS ABOUT ZABAH

  • The knife for Zabah has to be sharpened to the optimum, and the slaughter should be carried out quickly and effectively to minimise the suffering sustained by the animal.
     

  • The throat of the Qurbani animal should be cut in a manner to ensure that the gullet, the wind pipe and the two external jugular veins are severed.It is Makrooh to severe the entire neck including the vertebrae. At least 3 of the four vessels mentioned above ought to be severed to meet Shari'ah requirements of proper Zabah.
     

  • Every effort should be made to ensure that animals are not slaughtered in the presence of other live animals.
     

  • In the process of slaughtering, the knife should be concealed till the moment of slaughter and the animal should be placed such that it allows the person slaughtering the animal to face Qibla, as this is Mustahab.
     

  • The skinning of the slaughtered animal and dismembering of body parts should not commence until the animal's carcase has turned cold.
     

  • If after slaughtering an animal it is discovered that the animal was pregnant and a live foetus appears in the belly, then it is necessary to slaughter that foetus.

DISTRIBUTION OF QURBANI MEAT TO

 NON-MUSLIMS

Distribution of Qurbani meat or any other charity (sadqa) to "Harbi Kafir" is not permissable at all. It is mentioned in Durr-e-Mukhtar: "Even though a Harbi Kafir is peace-wanting, charity is unanimously not permissable." In Behr-ur-Raiq: "According to Shar'ah, giving something to a Harbi Kafir is not permissable, for no Sawaab can be gained through this."

IMPORTANT ADVICE FOR MUSLIMS

Many people make Qurbani on behalf of their parents, grandparents, Prophets and Saints, and not on their behalf. By doing so, they are neglecting their Waajib and thus become sinners through this action. Every Muslim must first make Qurbani on their behalf first so that their Waajib is fulfilled. Only after the Waajib is completed and if one is able to do so, can Qurbani be made on behalf of others.

It is preferable to make Qurbani on behalf of Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as it is virtuous and beneficial and has his blessings. Our Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) made Qurbani on behalf of all the poor people of his Ummah. This shows the love that he possessed for his Ummah. Therefore, every Muslim who is capable of making Qurbani on behalf of others should make Qurbani on behalf of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING

Those who are ignorant about the proper Islamic method that is carried out in the slaughtering of animals do not hesitate in criticising Muslims and in regarding this Islamic method of slaughter as primitive, barbaric and a cruelty to animals.

The aim of presenting this article is to inform the public that the Islamic method of slaughtering an animal is most humane, painless and better than the current methods of mechanical and electrial stunning of animals that are normally done in abbatoirs.

In order for large meat industries and commercial establishments to provide a much higher production, they all favour the method of mechanical and electrical stunning. They regard all other methods of slaughter as cruel and even manage to get the support of Animal Rights groups to oppose the Islamic method of slaughter.

In the Islamic method of slaughtering an animal, the animal is slaughtered by a sharp object which is capable of making it bleed by severing blood vessels. The slaughtering is to be done by cutting the throat of the animal or by piercing the hollow of the throat, causing its death. The best way is to cut the windpipe, the gullet, and the two jugular veins.

The wisdom of the Islamic rules of slaughtering is to take the animal's life in the quickest and least painful way; the requirements of using a sharp instrument and of cutting the throat relate to this end. No additional stunner is necessary. This method also allows for the most rapid and effecient bleeding of the animal. When the sharp knife enters the tissues of the neck, its cuts open four big blood vessels in the region. So much blood is lost so quickly that the animal becomes unconsious and feels no pain.

When the animal convulses, one gets the impression that it is undergoing pain and suffering. However, this is not the case. In the Islamic manner of slaughtering, the spinal cord is not severed since the nervous connection between the brain and the body is maintained so that all the blood is squeezed out of the body. When convulsion takes place, the wringing actions of the muscles of the body on the blood vessels help to get rid of the maximum amount of blood from the meat tissue. In fact, the occurence of convulsions confirm that the animal is unconscious. Thus, the animal also does not experience any pain.

In view of the above considerations, attempts to discredit the Islamic method of slaughter are ill-conceived. Based on scientific evidence, it should not be too difficult for individuals and groups to give up their attempts to interfere with religious beliefs and religious laws in general. The Islamic method of slaughter has stood the test of time and of scientific enquiry and remains by far the best, the most effecient and the safest.

Fasting & EID-ul-Fitr

Prior to the creation of man, it was envisaged by the Angels that mischief making and rebellion would be part and parcel of man's nature. Very remarkably, the Supreme Creator Allah did not rebut this cry of the Angels, but instead only answered with the caution of, "Certainly, I know what you do not know."

Thus, history testifies that Messengers of Allah (alaihimus salaam) have been sent to every nation upon the face of the earth, and this is also confirmed in the Glorious Quran, the purpose of which is for the physical, moral and spiritual enlightment of man. One of the tenets of the final Scripture, the Holy Quran, and a Command of Almighty Allah is "Fasting" - an institution which is generally accepted as a means of subjugation of man's baser self, and helping him to be more moral and earning spiritual advancement.

The Divine decree of Fasting is a universal enjoyment. The Encyclopedia Britannica says: "It would be difficult to name any religious system in which it (fasting) is wholly unrecognised." The Bible tells us that the Prophet Isa (alaihis salaam) and Prophet Musa (alaihis salaam) fasted for full 40 days. Gautham Budda fasted until he was actually reduced to skin and bones, as can be ascertained from his statues. And for a surety, all spiritual luminaries cannot omit this indispensable essential pillar for the physical, moral and spiritual purification of their respective adherents.

Why is it, that mankind must undergo this gruelling task of Fasting? The Holy Quran furnishes this reason: "That you may guard against evil." (2: 183) This is the special beauty of the Divine Command - it plainly spells the most significant importance of the Ramadaan fast. Evil, as we see today, circumscribes the very foundation of man's character and the society where he lives.

Today's rational, scientific and modern man is living in a world that is seething with indescribable crimes and rampant acts of unrighteousness. Various man-formulated deterrents and laws which have been enacted to conquer evils, have absolutely failed. A proof of this lies in the numerous courts of laws that conduct cases of diverse crimes and injustices every day; and also the cells of prisons are clear signs that man-made laws have had very little effect or no effect for the curbing of sins and other evils.

Today, we notice that evils such as gambling, prostitution, alcohol, and a host of others have been legitimised by certain Governments. Yet there is a hue and cry at the consequences of these and many other evils which are made legally permissable. Since it is now indisputable that man-orientated cure for evils are ineffective and impotent, it thus necessitates the intervention of the Divine hand. Fasting now plays the role as the firmest reign for the control of the widespread, sin-plagued humanity.

Man and animal share the same physical characteristics and physique. But since animals are not gifted with the faculties of speech, reason, understanding, choice, etc. man emerges as the higher creation. In fact, man is Allah's Khalifa (representative) on earth. When man becomes oblivious of his higher objective, when he is indifferent to the Commandments of Allah and his duties as a Muslim, he is likened to an animal. He confines his energies and aspirations within the boundaries of his life, and ponders not on the life hereafter.

Like the physical animal, his object is just to live for this material world. Eating, drinking, sleeping, multiplying, etc. become the "be all" and "end all" of his life, too. What difference is there now between the animal and the "modern," "rational" and "intellectual" man? It is this animal in man that has to be subjugated before man can reveal his true identity.

Our studies of animals would show that they can only be tamed when deprived of food, drink and sensual desires for a limited period of time. You can confirm this from a zoologist. So is it with man: depriving him of these intrinsic daily requirements for well over 12 hours daily for an entire month, may undoubtedly bring about a spiritual transformation within, when his animal desires are tamed and this ultimately result in his magnetic affiliation with the Divine Being.

Almost every man, with the exception of Prophets and spiritual luminaries, have the tint of the animal characteristics within him. But many, with Allah's Help, do control it. The desire to amass more and more wealth (lawfully or unlawfully), injuring our fellow human beings, and a host of other vices which we are lured to, display the animal instinct within humans.

The Holy Quran says: "Look at him who takes his desires for his god" - a practical Divine observation of man's character. As can be seen, the object of Fasting is to help us become masters of our passions and materialistic cravings, and becoming alive to the need of others, instead of us being slaves to them. We must aspire and work to become that "Mutaqqi" (pious through Allah-consciousness) - with whom Allah is pleased with. This goal can only be achieved if we fully comprehend the true implications of our fasting during the month of Ramadaan.

RAMADAAN

O peopIe, there comes upon you a great month, a most blessed month, in which lies a night greater in worth than one thousand months. Allah has made compulsory Fasting in this month and has decreed wakefulness at night (i.e. Taraweeh) Sunnah. Whosoever tries drawing nearer to Allah by performing any Nafl (optional) deed in this month, for him shall be such reward as if he performed a Fardh in any other time of the year. And whosoever performs a Fardh, for him shall be the reward of seventy Fardh in any other time of the year. This is indeed the month of patience, and the reward for true patience is Jannah; it is the month of sympathy with one's fellowmen; it is the month wherein believer's Rizq (provision) is increased.

The month of Ramadhaan, the month of blessings has come to you wherein Allah turns towards you and sends down to you this special Mercy, forgives your faults, accepts prayers, appreciates your competition for the greatest good and boasts to the Angels about you. So show to Allah your righteousness; for verily, the most pitiable and unfortunate one is he who is deprived of Allah's Mercy in this month. (Tabraani)

The Doors of Jannah are opened up on the first night of Ramadhaan. Not a single door is closed until the last night of Ramadaan. (Bayhaqi)

And in this month, four things you should endeavor to perform in great number; two of which shall be to please your Lord, while the other two shall be those without which you cannot make do. Those which shall be to please your Lord, are that you should in great quantitv recite the Kalimah Tayyibah, "Laa ilaaha illallah", and make much "Istighfaar" (beg Allah's forgiveness). And as for those, without which you cannot make do, you should beg Allah for entry into Jannah and seek refuge with Him from the Fire of Jahannam. (Ibne Khuzaymah)

When the month of Ramadaan comes, the Doors of Jannah are thrown open and the Doors of Jahannam are closed and the Shayateen are chained up. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Suhoor (Sehri)

Verily, Allah and His angels send mercy upon those who eat Suhoor. (Tabraani)

Eat Suhoor because in Suhoor lies Barakah. (Mishkaat)

Days of Ramadaan

Ther fishes in the sea seek forgiveness for those fasting until they break their fast. Allah decorates His Jannah every day and then says, "The time is near when My pious servants shall cast aside the great trials and come to me." (Ahmad)

During each day and night of Ramadaan, Allah sets free great number of souls from Hell. And for every Muslim, during each day and night, at least one Du�a is certainly accepted. (Bazzaaz)

Sawm (Fasting)

Sawm(Fasting) is a shield, as long as he (the fasting person) does not tear it up. (Nisaai)

Note: Fasting is a protection from Shaytaan or from Allah's punishment in the Hereafter. One who indulges in sins whilst fasting such as lies, backbiting, etc., they become the cause of the fast becoming wasted.

All good deeds are for the one who renders them, but Fasting is exclusively for me (Allah). (Bukhari)

Fasting is a shield and a powerful fortress. (Ahmad, Bayhaqi)

I swear by that Being in Whose possession is the life of Muhammad! The odour of the mouth of a fasting person is sweeter to Allah than the fragrance of musk. (Bukhari)

Fasting is exclusively for Allah, the reward of it (being limitless) no one knows besides Allah. (Tabraani)

Iftaar

Whosoever gives something to a fasting person in order to break the fast, for him there shall be forgiveness for his sins and emancipation from the Fire of Jahannam; and for him (the one who gives) shall be the same reward as for him (whom he fed), without that person�s (the one who was fed) reward being diminished in the least. (Ibne Khuzayrnah, Bayhaqi)

Whoever gave a person, who fasted, water to drink, Allah shall give him a drink from my Fountain where after he shall never again feel thirsty until he enters Jannah. (Ibne Khuzaymah)

The fasting person experiences two (occasions) of delight: at the time of Iftaar and at the time he will meet his Rabb. (Bukhari)

Not a single prayer made by a fasting person at the time of breaking fast is rejected. (lbne Maajah)

Nights of Ramadaan

Whoever stands in prayer and worship in (the nights of) Ramadaan, with lmaan and with sincere hope of gaining reward, his previous sins are forgiven. (Bukhari, Muslim)

Allah Ta�ala has ordained Fasting in Ramadaan compulsory, I have decreed (by the Command of Allah) wakefulness at night (that is Taraweeh, etc.) Sunnah. Whoever in the state of Imaan and with the hope of gaining reward fasts in Ramadaan and stays awake at night (Taraweeh), emerges from sin, purified as the day when his mother gave birth to him. (Nisaai)

For every Salaat performed during the nights of Ramadaan (that is Taraweeh, etc.) Allah Ta�ala records one and a half thousand goods deeds for every Sajdah (prostration). (Bayhaqi)

I'tikaaf

It is related by Abu Hurayrah (radi Allahu anhu) Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) observed I'tikaaf for ten days every year in the month of Ramadaan. In the year he passed away, he observed it for twenty days. (Bukhari)

hose who observe (I 'tikaaf) are prevented from all sins and they obtain reward as if they are rendering all good deeds. (Mishkaat)

He who observes the ten days of I'tikaaf during Ramadaan will obtain the reward of two Hajj and two Umrah. (Bayhaqi)

Last Night of Ramadaan

Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, "On the last night of Ramadaan, the fasting Muslims are forgiven". The Sahabah (radi Allahu anhum) inquired: "O Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), is that the Night of Power?" Nabi (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) replied, "No! But it is only right that a servant should be given his reward having completed his duty." (Ahmad)

NOTE:

Muslim must scan the skies for the sighting of the moon for Ramadaan and for Eid and convey the Shari� method of Shahaadat to the Ulama.

FASTING MERITS, RULES AND SUPPLICATION

MERITS:

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala says: "O believers! Fastings have been made obligatory upon you as were made before you, so that you may become pious." (2:183) Thus the fastings were obligatory on Muslims and it became the third pillar of Islam. Regarding merits of fastings there are so many Hadiths have been narrated, some of them are being referred below:

Hazrat Abu Huraira (radi Allahu anhu) said that our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that he who keeps fast with belief and hope of getting blessings then his forthcoming sins will be forgiven and he who believes and prays in the nights of Ramadaan with the intention of getting blessings then his forthcoming sins will be forgiven and he who believes and prays with the intention of getting blessings in the night of Qadr, his forthcoming sins will be forgiven. (Bukhari & Muslim)

Hazrat Suhail bin Sa'ad (radi Allahu anhu) said that our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that in Heaven there is a door which is called "RAYAN". On the Day of Judgment (Qiyamah) only the people who observed fastings will enter into Heaven through this door. Nobody other than those mentioned will enter. A call will be made, where are those who used to keep fasts? Then the people of fasting will stand up and enter into Heaven and then the door would be closed and none could be able to enter through this. (Muslim)

Hazrat Abu Huraira (radi Allahu anhu) said that I have heard our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) saying that Allah says: All the deeds other than fasts are for the men himself but fastings is for Me and I only will give reward for that. I swear by Who has Power on my Soul that the smell from the mouth of a fasting person is better than the smell of "Musk" scent. (Muslim)

RULES:

  1. For every day's fasting, intention must be done before the time of "Zawaal" or (Nisf un Nahar Sharayee).
     

  2. Intention for fasting need not be pronounced, only intention by heart is sufficient but it is better to pronounce the words. (Bahare Shari�at, part 5)
     

  3. Eating by mistake does not break the fasting, putting oil in your hair or putting black powder in the eyes and entering a fly in the mouth or smoke or dust of flour do not break the fasting. Gargling the mouth and throwing out the water then swallowing the wetness in the mouth and entering water in the ear does not break the fasting. If you cough and swallow the spit of any quantity does not break the fasting. Nightfall and backbiting also does not break the fast although backbiting is a great sin. Similarly, if you are fasting but did not took bath after sex then it will not break the fast although to remain without bath (Ghusl) for whole day is Haraam. If your lips become wet with your saliva and are then swallowed, Fast will not break. (Bahare Shari�at, part 5)
     

  4. If you were gargling, the water went inside without intention or the water went up inside the nose or putting oil in the ear or putting drops inside the nose breaks the fasting if you remember that you are fasting.
     

  5. Intentionally mouthful of vomiting breaks the fast if you remember that you are fasting, if it is less than mouthful vomiting then fasting did not break.
     

  6. If you vomitted unintentionally but if it is less than a mouthful, then fasting did not break but if it is mouthful and you swallowed it back, then it did break the fasting.
     

  7. If tears entered in the mouth and if they are more than one or two drops and you felt the salty taste in the whole mouth then it did break the fasting.
     

  8. If you spit on your hand and then swallow your spit or swallow somebody's spit then it did break the fasting.
     

  9. Drinking water or eating while sleeping breaks the fasting.
     

  10. Kissing, touching and having sex with your wife leading to discharge breaks the fasts.
     

  11. Normally eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or beetle-leaves breaks the fasts if you remember that you are observing fast. (Bahare Shari�at, part 5)
     

  12. To break the Ramadaan fasts intentionally is punishable by a fine. For breaking every Ramadaan fast intentionally - as a fine one has to keep 60 days continuous fasting. If it is not possible, then pay for the release of one slave for each fast. If this is not possible, then provide food for 60 poor men twice daily. (Qanoon-e-Shari�at, part 1)
     

  13. Lying, backbiting, ugly words, dirty talking and giving trouble to others makes fasting Makrooh (less blessings). Collecting saliva in your mouth and then swallowing it also makes fasting Makrooh. Delay in Sehri (eating before daybreak) is permissible but delaying up to the point of daybreak is Makrooh. (Bahare Shari�at, part 5)
     

  14. Cleaning your teeth with Miswak (a stick to dean the teeth) in fasting is not Makrooh. (Bahare Shari�at, part 5)

WHO IS EXEMPTED FROM FASTING:

In the following conditions, not to keep fasts is permitted, but one will have to keep them after Ramadaan month:

  1. If one is on a journey, and if that journey is at least 92 Kilometers (57.5 miles) long.
     

  2. Pregnant and breast-feeding women when she is concerned about the health of herself or the baby.
     

  3. If a person is sick and he is concerned that the disease will get worst or will take longer time to cure or a healthy person, if he is sure to get sick.
     

  4. Ladies having child birth and menstruation period. (Bahare Shari�at, part 5)
     

  5. A person is so old who is not capable of fasting nor he can hope of repeating the missed fasting then he should pay "Fidya" a fixed amount per day. That is to feed a poor twice for each fasting or give Sadaqa equivalent to Sadaqa Fitr. (Bahare Shari�at, part 5)

SUPPLICATIONS:

  1. Du�a for Fasting: Allahumma asumu ghadal laka faghfirli ma qadamtu wama akhartu. Or Wabi saumi ghadin nawatu min Shahri Ramadaan.
     

  2. Du�a when breaking Fast: Allahumma laka sumtu wa bika aamantu wa alaika tawakkaltu wa alaa rizqika aftartu fataqabal minni ma qaddamtu wama akhartu.
     

  3. Supplication for Taraweeh: Sub Hana Zil Mulki Wal Malakoot. Sub Hana Zil Eizzati Wal Azmati Wal Haibati Wal Qudrati Wal Kibreeyai Wal Jabaroot. Sub Hanal Malikil Hayyillazi La Yanamu Wala Yamoot Subbuhun Quddusun Rabbuna Wa Rabbul Malaaikati War�rooh. Allahumma Ajirna Minannari Ya Mujeeru Ya Mujeeru Ya Mujeer.

LAYLATUL QADR � THE NIGHT OF POWER

The month of Ramadan enjoys a intrinsic superiority over all other months of the year. It has a night better than thousand months according to the Qur'an: "Undoubtedly, we sent it down in the blessed and valuable night. And what you know, what the blessed night is? The blessed and valuable night is better than a thousand months. Therein descend angels and Jibrail (the Spirit) by the command of their Lord for every affair. That is all peace till the rising of the dawn." (Surah Qadr)

About the reason of revelation of this verse, it has been narrated by our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that one day he talked to his Companions about a person of a past nation and informed them that he spent a thousand months praying the whole night and doing Jihad all day. So his companions felt very sorry that due to their short life they cannot get that status. Then Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala revealed this verse (Surah) and informed Muslims that though you have not been given long lives yet by praying on the Night of Power you can get the rewards more than a person praying one thousand months.

The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) also described several times the significant values of this night: Hazrat Anas bin Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) reported that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that this month (Ramadaan) has approached to you, a night of this month is better than thousand months. One who failed to get the blessings of this is failed to get any blessings. And no one is failed but he who is truly disappointed. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala promissed forgiveness to the praying persons in this blessed night: Abu Huraira (radi Allahu anhu) reported that our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that one who prays in this night with Imaan and with the intention of getting blessings will be forgiven. Anas bin Maalik (radi Allahu anhu) reported that our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said that at the Night of Power, Jibrael (alaihis salaam) came down with a group of angels and prayed for mercy for the bondsman who is engaged in the worship of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala sitting or standing.

How to find out Laylatul Qadr:

It is narrated by Hazrat Aisha (radi Allahu anha) that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Seek the Night of Power in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan". This Hadith shows that the Night of Power falls on one of the odd nights of last ten days that is 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th and 29 th night. But we have some other indications from the companions of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and Muhaddhiseen, that this should be the night of 27th of Ramadaan.Due to this it seems a general consensus among the Islamic Scholars towards the 27th night. However, it is better to keep vigil during all odd nights of last ten days to get the blessings of this precious night. The Du�a to be read during this night is "Allahumma innaka afuwuh tuhibbul afwa fa�fu anni". This Du�as was taught to Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqa (radi Allahu anha) by Huzoor (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) himself.

HOW SHOULD A MUSLIM OBSERVE EID-UL-FITR

Eid-ul-Fitr refers to the festival after completion of fasting in the Month of Ramadaan. This auspicious occasion is celebrated on the 1st of Shawaal, which is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar. The festival of Eid-ul-Fitr is a manner of showing appreciation and gratitude to Almighty Allah for all that He has bestowed upon us.

On the morning of Eid-ul-Fitr, Muslims throughout the world perform the traditional Eid Salaah, which is Waajib upon all Muslims. It is not permissible to miss the Eid prayer without any valid reason. With the exception of performing the Eid Prayer, there are also various actions which are desirable on the day of Eid. These are:

  1. to trim the hair and nails,
     

  2. to perform the Ghusl (Ceremonial Bath),
     

  3. to use the Miswaak (special toothbrush),
     

  4. to wear (if affordable) or good clean clothing, to wear a ring (for men - a silver ring with one stone), and to use Ittar (Perfume),
     

  5. to perform the Fajr Salaah (morning prayer) in the nearest Mosque of your area,
     

  6. to leave early to perform the Eid Salaah,
     

  7. to give the Sadqa-e-Fitr (Eid-ul-Fitr Charity) before the Eid Salaah,
     

  8. to go by foot (if possible) for the Eid Salaah, and return home in another route,
     

  9. to eat a few dates (preferably an odd number) or something sweet before going for Eid Salaah, and
     

  10. to show happiness and gratification, to give charity in abundance, to walk modestly towards the Eid gathering, and to wish and congratulate one another after the Eid Prayer.

As much as Eid is a time of rejoicing, it is also a time of giving and sharing with those less fortunate than yourself. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) would always be the first to congratulate the poor and the orphans. We should also try to be as kind as possible on this day to our fellow Muslims. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated, "Smiling in the face of your brother is Charity."

THE SPIRIT OF RAMADAAN SHOULD BE ALIVE - THE BLESSINGS OF ALMIGHTY WILL SHOWER UPON THE UMMAH

Muslims are very glad to receive the Eid following a month of fasting to perform a sacred duty prescribed upon them. In this month, Muslims entered a state of purity and spiritual worship to seek the mercy and forgiveness of Almighty Allah.

People had during the month of Ramadaan exercised an unusual level of restraint and self-control to defy temptations and achieve victory over shaitaan. The spirit of social unity, sympathy, love and true affections prevailed throughout the entire month of Ramadaan. Muslims helped the poor in distress, showed love to the unfortunate, stayed up at night for prayers and fasted during the day. They hope that all the spiritual strength which they gained through prayer, contemplation and fasting will assist them to lead a good life and enter Jannah. Where do we go from here? What should now be our objective in life?

The benefits from this one month of fasting, should also be apparent in the other eleven months of the year. In other words, Muslims should show kindness, modesty, patience in times of difficulties and gratefulness when gaining the blessings of Almighty Allah. Not only should we show all these good qualities, but we should also abstain from all evils, such as jealousy, hatred, etc. Those Muslims who exercise self-control and patience are the pious ones that gain Allah's favour. We should try our best to build good relations with fellow Muslims. We should show gratitude, pity and love. In doing so, the Muslim world would be an embodiment of virtue and good morals, and stand out as an example to people of other faiths. It is a necessity in the trouble-filled world that we live in, for people to exercise self-restraint, patience and a deep sense of human understanding in order to alleviate the human misery that we see today and bring about the greatly needed peace that we desire. Last but not least, we should try to rejuvenate the enthusiasm to serve humanity.

Now that the month of Ramadaan is over we should understand that while our spiritual well-being is constantly under threat, a return to a life of greater devotion and prayer is the only foundation which the human race can build on for the future. In Islam lies total salvation, despite the state of Muslims today, to those wishing to take advantage of it as a remedy for the ills of the world.

 Ramadhan

 

Order and encouragement to fast

"O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you in order that you might learn piety . . . . The month of Ramadan is that wherein was revealed the Qur'an, as a guidance to mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion. So, whoever among you witnesses the month should fast." [Al-Qur'an 2:183, 185]

"Every deed of the Son of Adam is for himself, except fasting - it is for Me, and I shall reward it." [Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah]

"There is not any believer who remains hungry, and abstains from the forbidden things, and does not wrongfully consume the wealth of Muslims, except that Allah will feed him from the fruits of Heaven." [Musnad Abu Hanifah]

"Whoever fasts Ramadan with faith and expectation [of reward], his previous sins are forgiven him." [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i]

Rewards of fasting in general

"Fasting is a shield." [Ahmad]

"There is not any servant who fasts a day in the path of Allah, except that Allah will distance him from the Fire by a distance of seventy years." [Bukhari, Muslim]

"Fasting the month of patience and three days of each month remove rancor of the heart." [Ahmad, Bazzar]

Warning against abandoning fasting in Ramadan

"Whoever breaks his fast in Ramadan without a [valid] concession or illness, he cannot repay it, even if he were to fast the rest of his life." [Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah]

Rules Related to Fasting

THE OBLIGATION OF FASTING

a) The time for fasting is from the rising of the second dawn until the setting of the sun.

b) Fasting is: abstention from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse by day with the intention.

 

THE INTENTION

 

The fasting is valid with an intention from the night, but if one did not intend until the morning, the intention suffices him between [dawn] and {the middle of the day}.

1.  Things which invalidates fasting and requires full recompense

1.1 If someone intentionally does one of the following without any valid excuse(see 6 below)

a) Does not fast at all

b) Breaks fast by eating, drinking and sexual activities

c) Assuming that cupping has broken ones fast thus quit fasting for the day.

1.2 Expiation for the above is to

a) Fast unceasingly for two months (60 days), if one breaks fats during this one has to start anew.

b) If unable to do so, it is to feed 60 needy persons two full meal

c) If unable to do so, it is to free one slave.

1.3 Things that break fast and requires one to fast similar numbers of days in recompense

a) If something is entered into the body during the hours when one is supposed to fast, irrelevant of how it entered into the body.(see 5)

    * To eat something which is not food such as stone particle or smoking anything.

    * When water enters stomach while gargling

    * When one is fed by force even when one is sleeping or unconscious

    * Inject medicine, place them on wounds which eventually gets in.

    * Eating by mistake thinking it is still night or iftar time is due while it is not.

    * Involuntary full mouth vomiting and subsequent swallowing of it or part of it.

    * When one is force into sexual intercourse or when one is sleeping or unconscious

b) Fasting without intention

c) Breaking (iftar) fast without the intention of doing so.

d) Lustful kissing of ones spouse

e) Emission of semen due to touching, kissing, masturbation.

f) Intentional vomiting.

2. Offensive acts during fasting

a) Backbiting, slander

b) To lie or deceive

c) To use abusive language

d) Not having iftar

e) Taste a food without swallowing it, using toothpaste.

f) Gargling water due to thirsts or hot weather.

g) Wrapping oneself with wet clothes.

h) Throwing up intentionally

i) Weakening the body (e.g. strenuous sport)

j) Gathering saliva and swallowing it;

3. Days when fasting is forbidden

a) Day of Eid al Fitr (Eid of Ramadan)

b) During Eid al ADHa 10, 11, 12 and 13 of month of Dhul Hijjah

4. Events when it is allowed to break the fast and fast later the similar number of days

a) If fasting aggravates health-condition

b) Snake biting

c) Thirsts due to newly developed disease

d) Genuine danger for a pregnant mother, or for her fetus.

e) Genuine fear for the life of a suckling infant

f) Reason to fear death

g) Menstruation

h) If one is a traveller

5. Things that do not break fast

a) Those things which would otherwise break fast does not do so when one is unaware of the fact that one is fasting(complete forgetfulness of fasting).

b) Entrance of insects (i.e mosquitos), smoke and dust from natural environment does not break fast.

c) Wet dream, swallowing ones own saliva when still in the mouth, brushing teeth, smearing oil, ointment on unwounded body do not break fast. or used antimony [in his eyes],

d) If one is overcome by vomiting, his fast is not broken.

6. Etiquettes and desirable practices

   1. Preparing for the month.

   2. Bringing to mind the bounty of Allah.

   3. Purifying one's intention

   4. Pre-dawn meal (suhur) as late as safely possible.

   5. Not unnecessarily delaying the breakingof the fast.

   6. Performing salat al-Maghrib soon after breakign the fast, then returning to eat.

   7. Making du`a at the time of breaking the fast.

   8. Enabling others to break their fasts.

   9. Abstaining from all forbidden deeds.

  10. Maintaining a pleasant disposition.

  11. Abundant reciting of the Qur'an.

  12. Abundant charity.

  13. Performing tarawih prayers.

7. Miscellaneous

a) The intention of fasting can be made as late as just before noon, if one forgets to do so during the previous night. If one passes noon without making the intention ones fasting is invalid.(1.3b)

b) One should eat before the day breaks even when one is not hungry.

c) For a woman whenever during the day menstruation stops she should be observing fasting even though it is not a fast for her. She should fast if it happens just before morning and did not have enough time to take shower and eat.

d) If a woman menstruates, she stops fasting and makes up [fasting for the days of menstruation].

e)  Someone who lost consciousness in Ramadan does not make up the day on which the loss of consciousness occurred, but he makes up that which came after it.

f) If a traveller arrives, or a [menstruating] woman attains purity with part of the day [remaining], they abstain [from those things which invaliate fasting] for the rest of that day.

 

Jewels of Quran

Isa bin Muhammad (Alaihir Rahmah) says that I once saw Abu Bakr bin Mujahid (Alaihir Rahmah) after his death in a dream reading the Holy Quran. I asked, "You have died, how are you reciting," upon which he said, "After every Salah and finishing of the Quran, I would pray "O Allah, give me the Taufiq to recite the Quran in my grave" and that is why I am praying." (Faizan-e-Sunnat).

 

A hadith

The Holy Prophet said:
1) The best of you is he who learnt the Holy Quran and taught it to others. (Bukhari)
2) Undoubtedly, the heart gets rusted like metal gets rusted when water goes over it. The People asked, "How can they [hearts] be cleaned." The Prophet replied, "To remember death in abundance and to recite the Holy Quran." (Mishkat)
3) That chest which does not have any Quran in it is like an abandoned house. (Tirmizi, Darmi)
4) Whoever read the Quran and memorized it and belived its' Halal to be Halal and its Haram to be Haram [i.e., accepted it commandments of Halal and Haraam], Allah will accept the intercession for such 10 people on from him whom Hell had already become Wajib. (Tirmizi, Ibn-e-Majah)
5) Whoever is an expert in reciting the Holy Quran is with the Kiraman Katebeen and whoever reads the Quran with pauses and it is difficult for him, that is, his tounge does not move easily and he recites with difficutly for him there are two rewards. (Bahar-e-Shariat)
6) The one who has memorized Quran will be told to read and climb and recite with Tarteel (clear and distinct recitation) like you used to read with Tarteel in the Dunya; your place will be where you read your last Ayat. (Bahar-e-Shariat)
7) Allah says, "Whoever was kept busy with the [recitation] of Quran from my Zikr and asking me, I will give him better than those who I give to those who ask" and the excellence of the Word of Allah over all the other words is like the excellence of Allah over all his creation.
8) Learn the Quran and read it because whoever learned the Quran and read it and did Qayam with it is like a bag filled with Musk whose fragrance is spread everywhere and whoever learned the Quran and slept that is he did not do Qiyamul Layl is like a bag which is filled with Musk and its mouth has been closed. (Tirmizi, Ibn-e-Majah, Nisaee)
9) Read the Quran when you heart feels affection and attachment and when your heart becomes bored stand up that is stop reciting the Quran. (Saheeh Bukhari and Muslim)
10) Decorate the Quran with your (good) voices. (Mishkat)
11) O People of the Quran, do not make the Quran a pillow, that is do not be lazy and be careless, and read the Quran in the day and night like it is the Haq of Recitation, and spread it, that is, read with good voices or do not take compensation for it, and whatever is in it, reflect upon itso that you may attain success, and do not hurry in its reward because the reward for it is great (which will be given in the Akhirah). (Bahiqi).

 

Rewards for certain Surahs and Ayahs

The Holy Prohpet said:
1) Surah Fatiha is a cure from every illness. (Darmi, Bahiqi)
2) Do not make your home a graveyard, the Shaitan runs from the home in which Surah Baqrah is recited. (Sahih Muslim)
3) Whoever memorized the first ten ayahs of Surah Kahf will be saved the Dajjal. (Sahih Muslim)
4) Whoever recites Surah Kahf on the day of Jummah, there will be a Nur brightened for him between two Jummahs.
5) Everything has a heart and the heart of the Quran is Surah Yaseen, whoever read Yaseen, Allah will write the reward of reading the Quran ten times from him. (Tirmizi and Darmi)
6) Whoever reads Surah Yaseen for the pleasure of Allah, his past sins will be forgiven so read this near your deceased. (Bahiqi)
7) (Reading) Qul hu WAllahu Ahad (Surah Ikhlas) is equal to [reading] one third of the Quran.
8) Whoever read Ayatul Kursi after every Fard Salah, he will be under the protection and security of Allah. (Dailmi on the Authority of Sayeduna Ali)
9) (On the Day of Judgement) a caller will say O Recitor of Surah Inaam, come to Jannat for loving Surah Inaam and its recitation.
10) Surah Tabarak (Surah Mulk) saves one from Hell.
11) Whatever task is not begun with Bismillahi Rahamni Raheen remains incomplete and unfinished.

 

Ettiquteets and Rules of Tilawat:


1) To memorize one Ayah of the Quran is Fard-e-Aeen on every Mukallaf Muslim; to memorize the entire Holy Quran is Fard-e-Kafyah; to memorize Surah Fatiha and a small Surah or something similar like three small Ayahs or one long Ayah is Wajib-e-Aeen. (Durre Mukhtar)
2) To read the Holy Quran while looking at it is better then reading without looking at it because in this case one touches the Holy Quran, sees the Holy Quran, and reads the Holy Quran and all this is Ibadat. (Bahar-e-Shariat)
3) To read the Holy Quran in the restroom and such places of impurity is not allowed (Na-Jaiz)
4) It is Haraam that everybody read the Holy Quran in a gathering loudly at once, however, it is necessary to read loudly enough so that one can hear what he/she is reading, that is, if there is no other distraction like noise. (Bhare-e-Shariat) Also, many children read together at once in a Madrsa loudly for learning purposes and this is okay.
5) It is better to read the Quran loudly that is if somebody praying, sleeping, or somebody ill will not be distracted. (Gunyah)
6) If somebody is reciting the Quran incorrectly then it is Wajib to tell him/her unless if one fears jealousy and hate. (Gunyah)
7) To memorize the Holy Quran and then to forget it is a sin.
8) It is from the ettiqutes of respecting the Holy Quran that one does not put their back towards the Quran or spread their legs towards the Quran or sit in a high place when the Quran is beneath. (Bahare Shariat)
9) During recitation reflect on what you are reading. For example, when reading about punishment, one should repent; when reading about paradise, one should rejoice and pray for Jannah.
10) The way to do Sajdah of Tilwat is as follows: If one hears or reads the Ayat of Sajdah then he should stand with the intention of performing the Sajdah of Tilawat and saying Allahu Akbar should go into Sajdah and should recite the Tasbeeh of Sajdah atleast three times. Then, saying Allahu Akbar, one should stand up. To say Allahu Akbar both times is Sunnah. Similarly, to stand before and after the Sajdah is Mustahab. (Durre Mukhtar)

Lastly, learn how to read the Quran in the company of a Qualified Sunni Alim [and mature sisters must go to a Qualified Sister] who can teach them how to read as this is necessary. At times, while reciting many brothers and sisters unknowingly make mistakes in recitation which change the meaning which breaks their Salah. Likewise, send your children to Madrsas where they may learn how to recite the Quran with correct pronunciation and Qirat. If there is not a Madrsa in your town, then establish one. Knowledge of Islam leads one to Love Allah and helps to build a good moral character within the Muslim community. By learning the Quran, a Muslim saves his Salah, his Iman, and his Akhirah. Learning the Quran is not limited to just learning how to recite the Holy Book, rather, it is a life long process of learning how to recite it and understand what the Quran says. The noble Ulama have worked hard and written volumes of Tafseer which consists of Ahadith, Stories, and important points. After learning the Quran, we must practice it and spread the word into our family and community.

 

Masturbation in Islam

Allah (Exalted is He) says: “And those who guard their private parts from their wives and those (slave-girls) which their right-hands own - so there is no blame upon them. Then whoever seeks beyond that (which is lawful), they are the transgressors”.

Masturbation is also considered as “seeking beyond” with reference to the Quranic verse above.

Suhail son of Sai’d (may Allah be pleased with them) narrates that the Holy Prophet (Allah’s’ Grace & Peace be upon him) said: Whoever gives me the assurance (not to unlawfully use) what is between their jaws and their legs (i.e. the tongue and the private parts), I give them the assurance of the Heaven. (Bukhari)

Abu Hurrairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet of Allah (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him) said: Whoever Allah protects, from the evil (sh’r) of what is between their jaws and between their legs, will enter Paradise. [Tirimzi]

Imam Shamsuddin Zahabbi (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates a Prophetic narration that, “Seven people are such that Allah has cursed them and He will not even cast a look of mercy upon them on the Day of Judgment. Allah will tell them to enter Hell with the people who are going to Hell, except those who repent.
1. One who performs the act of sodomy.
2. One upon whom the act of sodomy is performed.
3. One who does bad deeds with animals.
4. One who marries his mother or sister.
5. One who masturbates.” (The words of the hadith says these seven people but lists five - Kitab-ul-Kaba’ir p.48)

Allama Mahmood Alussi (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates in Ruh-ul-Ma’ni: “Atta (may Allah be pleased with him) says that I have heard that on the Day of Judgment one group will be brought in such a way that their hands will be pregnant. I think they are the masturbators.” Allama Alussi further says: Saéed bin Jubayr (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him) said: “Allah Exalted will inflict punishment on a group of people because they misused their private parts.” (Ruh-ul-Ma'ni p. 291)

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet of Allah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The person who performs marriage [nikah] with his hands (i.e. masturbates) is cursed.” (Fatawa Razaviyya, Vol. 10, p.80)

Abdullah bin Masood (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Holy Prophet (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him) said: “O group of youth! Whoever from among you can marry should do so because it keeps the gaze low and it protects the private parts. And he who cannot marry should fast because fasting breaks lust.” (Muslim – Book of Marriage)

Mufti Waqar-ud-din Al-Qadri (Hanfi) writes in “Waqar-ul-Fatawa” (Vol. 1, P. 269): “If a person is overpowered by sexual desire such that there is fear of him becoming involved in adultery or he is not capable of marrying or his wife is so far that he can't go there. Then it is hoped there is no punishment for the one doing this [masturbation]. It is written in “Durr-e-Mukhtar” (Vol. 2, Pp 109) (by Sheikh Alla’ud Din Muhammed son of Ali Haskiffi, died 1088H): ‘If there is fear of committing adultery then it is hoped that there is no punishment on the one doing this (masturbation)’. Allama (Syed Mohammed Amin Ash-Shaheerba Bin Abideen) Shammi, (may Allah’s mercy be upon him, died 1253H) has also argued on this quite a lot and decided that if he does this with the intention of saving himself from committing sin it will not be a sin and if he does it with the intention of enjoyment he will be a sinner.”

The Holy Prophet (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him) said, "No doubt the virtues wipe away the sins". Therefore a masturbator must repent sincerely with an intention that he will never commit it again and do good deeds. According to a Prophetic narration, "The one who repents is like the who does not have any sin.

Meaning of Hadiths 

 

Nahmadullah al-'Aliyyil-'Azeem wa Nusalli 'Alâ Rasulihil-Kareem.

SallAllahu 'alâ Sayyidinâ wa Mawlânâ Muhammadin wa 'alâ Aalihî wa Sahbihî wa sallim.

'Ilm of Hadiths

 

Meaning of Hadiths

The talk and/or work and/or the action/practice of the Holy Last Messenger   and the silence of the Holy Last Messenger and practice of anything done before him is also related as Hadiths.
 

Hadiths of Sayyidina Rasululla are of three (3) types

 

  1. (Qawli) - Talk of the Holy Last Messenger (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam). Hadith Qawli is that Hadith that Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) spoke himself.

  2.   (Fa’ali) - The action of Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam). So Hadith Fa’ali is Hadith that Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) has taught us by his actions without comment.

  3. (Taqriri) - Hadith Taqriri is Hadith which comes from Rasulullah’s (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) silence regarding any action.

Besides these three, there are three other classes of Hadiths
 

  1. (Marfu’a) - Hadiths where the Isnad comes from the teacher from the collector from the companions.

  2. (Mawqoof) - Hadith Mawqoof is when the Hadith is related by the Sahaba man or woman, but the isnad does not reach Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam).

  3. (Maqtoo’a) - Hadith Maqtoo’a is Hadith where the Tabi’een is the end of the Isnad.

All these three can be Qawli, Fa’ali, or Taqriri.

Sanad is Wajib for Hadiths. In the Isnad of the narration from al-Imam al-Bukhari (Radhi Allahu Anh), there are no more than six (6) persons. One who records Hadiths is called Rawee. Each Rawee must be Salih, Ahlus-Sunnah, sincere, and strict in Deen.
 

Famous Books of Hadiths

  1.  Sahih al-Bukhari - There are 2623 Hadiths in 9 volumes. Imam al-Bukhari was born in 194 A.H. and he demised in 256 A.H. He never had more than six persons in his Isnad.

     

  2. Sahih Muslim - There are 4,000 Hadiths with the minimum of 4 persons as the Rawee. Hazrat Imam Muslim was born in 204 A.H. and he demised in 260 A.H.

     

  3. Muwatta al-Imam Malik - He was born 103 A.H. and his demise was 178 or 179 A.H.

     

  4.  Sulayman bin Asyas Sajistani, whose famous name is Abi Dawud. His book Sunan Abu Dawud or Sahih Abu Dawud. He was born in 202 A.H. and his demise was 275 A.H. Sunan are those Hadith which are similar to Fiqh.

     

  5. Sahih al-Tirmithi - His name was Hazrat Abu Isa Soora. It is also called Jami’a Tirmithi. He was born in 209 A.H. and he was demised in 279 A.H.

     

  6. Sahih an-Nisa’i - His name was Abu Abdur-Rahman Ahmad ibn Shu’aib. He was born 214 A.H. and he was demised 303 A.H. Hazrat An-Nisa’i had four wives and many children.

     

  7. Sahih Ibn Majah - is also called Sunan Ibn Majah. His name was Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yazid bin Abdullah. He was born 209 A.H. and demised 273 A.H.

    These are the 6 books of Hadiths which are called Sahih Sitta which are most famous with the most sound tradition. Some include in the Sahih Sitta the Muwatta of Al-Imam Malik (Radhi Allahu Anh) and others include the Sahih Ibn Majah. 

     

  8. Musnad of al-Imam al-A’zam Abu Hanifah (Radhi Allahu Anh), born 80 A.H., deceased 150 A.H., he was the only Imam from the Four Imams who met Sahabi and learned Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) and recorded them. Abu Hanifah said, "I was born in the year 80 and in 86 I went on Hajj with my Abi; when I entered Haram Sharif, I saw a group of people sitting before a man as students before a teacher, then I asked my father ‘who is this person,’ and my father answered, ‘this is Abdullah bin Harth. This is a Sahabi of Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam).’ After seeing this man, I wanted to meet him and at that moment he was giving a talk on Hadith and that Hadith was: ‘Whosoever learns knowledge of Shari’ah, Allah will be enough for him and will help him and give him rizq from the ghaib without measure,’ which means that person who seeks knowledge of Al-Islam, for him Allah will be enough, and Allah will grant him rizq from those places he will not even think of. For that person who learns about Islam, Allah will suffice in all his difficulties and he will be helped from unseen places."

     

  9. The Musnad of al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (Radhi Allahu Anh). He was the Imam of Al-Ghawth al-A’zam Sheikh Abdul-Qadir al-Jilani (Rahmatullah Alayh). His kunya is Abu Abdullah Ahmad bin Hanbal. He was born in 164 A.H. and deceased 241 A.H. His musnad is in 6 volumes.

     

  10. The Musnad of Abu Dawud, deceased 204 A.H.

  11. Abd bin Hunayd

  12. Harath bin Abu Usama

  13. Al-Bazri

  14. Abi Yala

  15. Abu Awana

  16. Sahih Isma’il

  17. Sahih Ibn-e-Habban

  18. Sahih Hateem

  19. Mustaj Karaj Abi Nuam

  20. Musnad Darmi

  21. Sunan Darkutmi

  22. Sunan Abi Muslim

  23. Musnad of Abdur-Razzaq

  24. Musnad of Sa’id bin Mansur

 

Status of Hadith and the Importance of Hadith

All things which Allah revealed to Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) are of two types. The first is through the Mala’ik, meaning Jibreel (AS) which we call Wahi-Jalee . Jalee means open (revelation) through the Angel. And these revelations together are called Qur’an Majeed. The second type is when Allah speaks directly to the qalb (heart) of His Rasul (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) without the Angel and it is called Wahi-Khafee  and this is the form of the Hadiths. Whatever Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) said was, in fact, from Allah, because Allah says in Holy Qur’an:
 

"He does not speak from his hawaa (desire); it is nothing except Wahee revealed to him."
[Surah an-Najm 3-4]

Tafsir - This means that whatever comes on the tongue of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) whether speaking to his wives, the Sahabi, or others, all is from Allah. Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (Radhi Allahu Anh) used to record every word of Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam). Some people advised him that he should not record everything that he said because Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) may say this in a state of happiness or sadness and they should not be recorded. But, Hazrat Ibni Umar (Radhi Allahu Anh) did take their advice and he ceased to record everything that Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) said in his presence by pen and paper. So, he went to Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) and told him that people had suggested to him to stop writing everything that the Rasul (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) had said, so he asked if he should continue. And his answer was that Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) pointed with his finger to his mouth and said, "I swear by the One who gave me life that whatever comes from my mouth is nothing but Haqq, no matter what state I am in." Hadith Sharif is very important because Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) gave permission to record the Hadiths. This means that he gave an order to Ibni Umar (Radhi Allahu Anh) and the order of the Holy Nabi (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) is Fardh. This Hadith is in the Sahih Ibni Dawud. [Arabic p. 514]

   Hazrat ‘Ali bin Abu Taleb (Karam Allah Wajhu) had a book in which a few Hadiths of Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) were recorded in which there were a few examples of diyat (compensation) (If  a man kills someone deliberately, Qisas can be required [Fardh]. If they request money, this is Badila Suhas, or blood money. If someone is accidentally killed, Qisas is nor Fardh, but diyat becomes Fardh. Diyat is a fixed amount; 100 camels for a male and 50 camels for a female or a monetary equivalent. But can be remitted). This book (Sufu Waraqa) was kept in the sheath of his (Radhi Allahu Anh) sword; This was only a few pieces of paper, not like the books today; so in that book, he wrote that if a person has a lot of credit and he has not returned the money to the creditor and the creditor insists on getting his money, then if a Muslim assists him, it explains the reward he will receive. It was also written in this book that if a Muslim kills a non-Muslim, then Qisas is not due. From this, we have proof that the Sahabi Ikram (Radhi Allahu Anh) used to record Hadith of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam). [Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. I, p. 21]

   Al-Hadith is the commentary and explanation of Al-Qur’an al-Majeed. From the Holy Qur’an, which says:
 

"We have revealed the Qur’an to you that you may comment on it an explain it."

(This ayat explains the necessity for al-Hadith). For this reason, the Sahaba found it important to narrate Hadiths as they are the explanation of the Holy Qur’an. Someone asked Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anh) if Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam) had given him any special Kitab that no one knew of. Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anh) was in this time as Khalif and the Shia were spreading lies that there was a special Qur’an given to Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anh), solely to support Shia lies. So that question was asked in connection with this. Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anh) replied, "I have nothing other than the Holy Qur’an which everyone has and this little book of Hadiths which I have written from Rasulullah (Sallallahu 'Alayhi wa Sallam), which is kept in the sheath of my sword"
 

NOTE: It is the belief of some Shia that the Holy Qur’an which is in our possession is not the Holy Qur’an that was revealed to Rasulullah (the ones in Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, and India, mostly). The Shia say that their book was given to Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anh) and he told Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman (Radhi Allahu Anh) that "this book is with me and you must accept it." They say that the three Khalifs mentioned did not accept the book of Hazrat Ali and, in turn, he did not accept their book. The time period is not mentioned, nor clear. The Shia lies continue to say that in his anger, Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anh) took this book and threw it in the wind, and now this book is with Imam Mahdi, who is hiding in the mountains and living in fear that if he shows up, the Sunni’s will kill him. And on the Day of Judgement, the number of Sunni will decrease and the number of Shia will increase and he will come from the mountains and announce this book and the people will come and follow this book. They say that al-Imam Abu Bakr’s and Hazrat Umar’s (Radhi Allahu Anh) graves will be dug up and they will hang them and they will kill the Sunni.
   Taqiya means lies and the Shia believe that they must lie, because if they speak the truth, the Sunni will kill them. So they say Taqiya is Fardh. In Usool al-Kafi [a widely used Shia book], all of this is recorded there. In this filthy book it is written that a person asked al-Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (Radhi Allahu Anh) a question and he answered him. Then, another person came and asked Ja’far As-Sadiq, and asked him the same question and he gave him an opposite answer. (Imam Ja’far As-Sadiq bin Baqir bin Zain ul-Abidin). One person was sitting next to al-Imam Ja’far while these two men asked their questions. The man asked Imam Ja’far which answer was correct, as they contradicted each other; so Imam Ja’far said, "both are correct because I have made Taqiya and it is my belief of my father, grand-father, and great-grandfather that until the time of Imam Mahdi, the truth should not be revealed." So, whatever they (Shia) is lies, even the part about Hazrat Ali (Radhi Allahu Anh) and they have lied on their Twelve Imam in what they have said about them.

   So, back to the original topic, the Hadith have been recorded in all periods of the Sahaba (Radhi Allahu Anh), Tabi’een, and Tabat-Tabi’een. And to believe in the Holy Qur’an without accepting the Hadiths makes one a Kafir, because Allah says you should explain the Holy Qur’an to the people. And if the Hadith is not the explanation of the Holy Qur’an, then where is the explanation? All Hadiths given were from Sahih al-Bukhari.

   In the Qur’an al-Majeed, Allah Ta’ala says that we must perform Hajj, Salaat, and so forth, but it is not mentioned HOW to do these acts. This if found in Al-Hadiths. That person who does not believe in Hadiths, but believes in Holy Qur’an will find it impossible for him to practice the ‘Ilm in the Holy Qur’an without the guidance of the Hadiths.

A short history of 'Ilmul Usul  

Preface

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

The subject under discussion is the knowledge of the Principles of Jurisprudence (Usulul Fiqh). The study of Principles of Jurisprudence is tantamount to a preparation to the study of Jurisprudence.

 

The knowledge about the Principles of Jurisprudence is more profound than the knowledge of Jurisprudence itself. The relationship between the study of Jurisprudence and its Principles is the same as it is between the study of Logic and Philosophy.

 

For example, everybody knows that the price of a certain commodity shows an upward trend while that of another remains static. This knowledge is superficial but the knowledge as to why the prices show an upward trend is a deep-rooted knowledge. The Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet gives us precise commandments and edicts to adhere to the teachings of Islam in every walk of life; but all of these commandments have not been explained in detail.

 

It has been so because events and situations pertaining to relevant human activity and behavior vary; but to arrive at conclusions regarding various general rules and regulations, a guideline in the form of principles has no doubt been laid down.

 

Hence, the study of the Principles of Jurisprudence viz. the principles of deducing laws has become very important as well as a fascinating subject. The work on this subject started from the second century of the Hegira with a view to making correct deductions from Islamic injunctions for practical purposes.

 

In short, the Principles of Jurisprudence is the study of those rules that are used in deducing Islamic laws from the Book of Allah (Qur'an) and the Traditions of the Holy Prophet (Hadith).

 

The need for 'Ilmul Usul

A man who believes in Allah, Islam and the Islamic law and who knows that being a slave of Allah, the Almighty, he is accountable to Him for all his actions, has no alternative but to lead his life in every respect in accordance with the law of Islam. His common sense demands that he should base all his personal actions as well as his relations with others on Islamic teachings, and for all practical purposes take that position which his knowledge of himself that is the knowledge that he is a slave of Allah and has to obey the law sent by Him to His Prophet, enjoins upon him.

 

In view of this, it is essential that in his practical life man should know clearly what he should do and what he should not.

 

Had all the injunctions of Islam been quite clear and easy to understand, everybody could determine himself what he should do in a given case.

 

Everybody knows that it is his duty to follow the Islamic law. He has to do whatever has been enjoined by it and has to refrain from whatever has been declared improper by it. As for the acts which have been declared permissible, he is at liberty to do or not to do them, Therefore if all the rules of Islamic law as to what is obligatory, forbidden and permissible were clear and definitely known, there would have been no doubt regarding the practical attitude that a man should take to observe the Islamic law in any given situation.  In this case, there would have also been no need of any wide scale research or study.

 

But owing to many factors including our remoteness from the time when Islamic law was enunciated, in many cases the religious instructions are not very clear and appear to be complicated. Consequently in these cases it is very difficult for a layman to make a decision based on the understanding of Islamic law.

 

Naturally a man, who does not know whether a particular act is obligatory, forbidden or permissible according to Islamic teachings, cannot be sure what practical attitude he should adopt in regard to that particular act.

 

For this reason it is necessary to set up a science that may look into each and every case and state with proof what practical attitude one should adopt in regard to it according to the Islamic law.

 

The science of jurisprudence has come into being for this very purpose, it determines and specifies the practical attitude in each specific case in accordance with Islamic Law. This specification is supported by arguments and proofs. The jurist endeavors to find out a rule of law for every occasion and every incident in life, It is this process which is technically called Ijtihad.

 

To find out the rules of law actually means the delineation of practical attitude towards Islamic law. This delineation is substantiated by means of supporting arguments. By practical attitude we mean the faithful observance of the law of Islam, which is the duty of everybody.

 

Hence the science of Islamic jurisprudence means the science of the arguments adduced in support of the fixation and delineation of practical attitude towards every specific situation in conformity with the shariah (Islamic law), the faithful observance of which is our obligatory duty. The fixation of practical attitude through arguments is what we call istinbāt (deduction) in the matter of Islamic law.

 

Thus it may be said that the science of Islamic jurisprudence is the science of deducing the rules of Islamic law; in other words, it is the knowledge of the process of deduction. The science of jurisprudence uses two methods to determine the practical attitude by means of a proof that removes any ambiguity or complexity from it:

 

1. Indirect Method: That means proving a rule of law by discovering that it has been specifically prescribed by Islam and thus fixing clearly the practical attitude enjoined on man by his duty in regard to the observance of Islamic law. If we can prove that a certain action is obligatory, we can be sure what our attitude should be to it and can know that we must take that action.

 

2. Direct Method: In this method a proof is adduced to determine the practical attitude, but not through the discovery of a clear decision in a particular case, as we I observed in the indirect method. Here we cite a direct argument to determine what the practical attitude should be. This is done in the case in which we are unable to find a firm legal decision and do not know whether a particular act according to the Islamic law is obligatory, forbidden or permissible.

 

In this case we cannot successfully employ the first method in the absence of enough legal proof, but have to resort to other arguments which may help us in determining our practical attitude and in deciding what we should do so that we may be able to follow the teachings of Islam earnestly and may not be slack in our duty which Islam has imposed on us.

 

In both these methods the jurist deduces the rules of Islamic law and fixes the attitude to be taken vis-à-vis the Islamic law. He adduces a proof to support his opinion either in a direct or an indirect way.

 

The process of deduction in the science of Islamic jurisprudence is so vast that it covers every event and every happening in human life. A rule has to be deduced to cover every eventuality and every occasion. For this purpose the jurist employs the above-mentioned two methods.

 

It is this process of deduction which comprises the science of jurisprudence, and in spite of its multifold variety consists of a number of common elements and general rules, which put together, form the basis of the process of deduction, which constitutes the science of jurisprudence.

 

The common elements forming the basis of deduction require the institution of a special science for their study and processing to meet the requirements of jurisprudence. This science is called 'Ilmul Usulil Fiqh (the science of the principles of jurisprudence).

 

DEFINITION OF 'ILMUL USUL

On this basis 'Ilmul Usul (the science of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence) may be defined as the science dealing with the common elements in the procedure of deducing Islamic laws. In order to grasp this definition it is essential that we know what are the common elements in the procedure of deduction (Istinbāt).

 

Now let us cite a few examples of this procedure so that through a comparative study of these, we may arrive at the idea of the common elements, in the procedure of deduction.

 

Suppose, for instance, that a jurist faces the following questions and wishes to answer them:

 

1. Is it prohibited for one who is fasting to immerse himself in water?

2. Is it obligatory on an individual who inherits wealth from his father to pay its khums?

3. Does prayers become null and void because of laughter during that time?

 

If the jurist wants to reply to the first question, for example, he would say, "Yes, immersion in water is prohibited for one who is fasting''. The jurist derived this law of Islam by following a tradition narrated by Ya'qub ibn Shu'ayb from Imam Ja'far Sadiq (a). "Imam Sadiq (a) said, neither a mohrim (one in the state of ehram, i.e. ready for pilgrimage) nor one who is fasting should immerse himself in water". A sentence framed in this way indicates, in common parlance, according to philologists, to prohibition. The narrator of this tradition, Ya'qub ibn Shu'ayb, is reliable and trustworthy. And although a reliable and trustworthy narrator may, in rare cases, err or deviate (since he is not infallible), the Almighty Law-giver has prohibited us from attributing error and deviation to any reliable and trustworthy narrator, and has declared such narrations to be taken as true. He has also ordered us to follow them without paying any attention to the slight possibility of error or deviation. Thus the conclusion is drawn from the above that immersion in water is prohibited (haram) for one who is fasting, and the mukallaf (responsible person in the eyes of Islamic law) must abstain from it while fasting in accordance with the law of Islam.

 

The jurist will reply to the second question in the negative, i.e. that it is not obligatory for a son to pay khums on the legacy (received) from his father, because there is a tradition in that behalf, narrated by Ali ibn Mahziyir, in which Imam Sadiq (a) has defined the kinds of wealth on which the payment of khums is obligatory. In common parlance this sentence clarifies that the Almighty Law-giver has not imposed khums on legacies that are transferred from father to son. Although the possibility exists that the narrator, in spite of his reliability and trustworthiness, may have erred, the Almighty Lawgiver has ordered us to follow the narrations of the reliable and trustworthy narrators, and to disregard the slight possibility of error or deviation on his side. Thus the mukallaf is not bound to pay khums on wealth inherited from his father, according to the Islamic law. The jurist will reply to the third question in the affirmative i.e. "Laughter nullifies prayers". This reply is

based on the tradition narrated by Zurarah from Imam Sadiq who says, "Laughter does not invalidate ablution (wuzu) but it invalidates prayers". In common parlance, this would mean that a prayer (salāt) in which laughter occurs will be deemed null and void, and will have to be repeated obligatorily.

 

In other words this means the nullification of the prayer. And the narration of Zurarah falls among those which the Almighty Law-giver has commanded us to follow and for which He has given clear and revealing proofs. Thus it is obligatory on the worshipper, according to the Islamic law, to repeat the prayers in which laughter occurred, as that is required of him by the Islamic law.

 

By examining these three juristic standpoints we find that the laws, which the jurist derived, belong to different categories. The first concerns fasting and the one who fasts; the second khums and the economic system of Islam; and the third prayer and some of its limits. We also see that the proofs on which the jurist relied are all different. Regarding the first law he relied on the narration of Ya'qub ibn Shu'ayb, for the second on that of Ali ibn Mahziyar and for the third, on that of Zurarah. Each of these narrations has its own text and special verbal construction, which is essential to study in depth, and to clearly define. However in the midst of this variety and these differences in the three standpoints, some common elements are found in all the three cases. These common elements were utilized by the jurists in all the three procedures of deduction.

 

Among those common elements is the recourse to common parlance (al-'Urf al-'Am) to understand a text (al-Nass) [1]. Thus the jurist relied for his understanding the text in each case on the manner in which the text would be understood in general usage. This means that general usage is a valid proof and a competent source in fixing the exact meanings of words. In terms of 'Ilmul Usul, it is called Hujjiyah al-Zuhur al-'Urfi [2], or the validity of general usage as a proof. So Hujjiyah al-Zuhur al-'Urfi' is a common element in the three procedures of deduction.

 

Similarly, another common element is found and that is the command of the Almighty Law-giver, to accept and follow the narrations of the reliable and trustworthy narrators. The jurist in each of the three cases of deduction discussed and came up against a text transmitted by a reliable and trustworthy narrator. In those texts the possibility of error and deviation exists, since the narrators were not infallible. However, the jurist disregarded this possibility, nay, ignored it completely, on the basis of the command of the Almighty Law-giver to accept and follow the narrations of the reliable and trustworthy narrators. To this common element we give the name Hujjiyahtul Khabar or the validity of a reliable transmitted text as proof. Thus Hujjiyahtu'l Khabar is a common element in all the three cases of deduction discussed above. Had it not been so, it would have been impossible for the jurist to derive the prohibition of immersion in water in the first case, or that the payment of khums being not obligatory in the second case or the nullification of prayers by laughter in the third instance.

 

Thus, we arrive at the conclusion that the procedure to deduce the law consists of particular as well as common elements. By "particular elements" we mean those elements

that vary from case to case. Thus the narration of Ya'qub ibn Shu'ayb is a particular element in deriving the prohibition of immersion in water (for one who is fasting) because it does not enter into other operations of deductions. In such case other particular elements take its place as for example, the narration of Ali ibn Mahziyar and Zurarah. By "common element" we mean the general rules which enter into different operations of deduction on a variety of subjects, as are the elements of Hujjiyah al-Zuhur al-'Urfi and Hujjiyahtu'l Khabar.

 

In 'Ilmul Usul the common elements are studied in the process of deduction which are not confined specifically to anyone legal problem. And in 'Ilmul Fiqh (the science of jurisprudence) the particular elements are studied in each case of the process of deduction that concern that legal problem particularly.

 

Thus, it is left to the jurist to scrutinize meticulously, in every legal problem, the particular narrations, which are connected with that problem and to study the value of those narrations and to endeavor to understand the texts and words in the light of common parlance. On the other hand, the specialist in 'Ilmul Usul deals with the examination of the validity of common parlance in itself as a proof (i.e. Hujjiyahtu'l 'Urf al-'Ām) and of the validity of a reliably transmitted text as a proof (i.e. Hujjiyahtu'l Khabar). He poses questions along the following lines: Is common parlance valid proof? What are the limits within which recourse to common parlance is obligatory'? On what evidence is the validity of a reliably transmitted text established as a proof? What are the general conditions in a reliably transmitted text by virtue of which the Almighty Law-giver confers upon it the status of validity as a proof and deems it as acceptable evidence? And there are other such questions pertaining to the common elements in the process of deduction.

 

In this light we can conclude that 'Ilmul Usul is the science dealing with the common elements in the process of deduction. It is the science which discusses the elements which enter into different cases of deduction to derive laws on a variety of subjects, as, for example, al-Zuhur al-'Urfi and al-Khabar as a proof are two common elements which were relied upon in the derivation of the laws concerning fasting, khums and prayers (as discussed above).

 

'Ilmul Usul does not only define the common elements but it also fixes the degrees to which they may be used in the process of deduction and the inter-relationships existing between them, as we shall see in the forthcoming discussion. It is through this that the general system of deduction is established.

 

Hence, we deduce that 'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh are inter-connected in the process of deduction. 'Ilmul Fiqh deals with the process of deduction whereas, 'Ilmul Usul deals with the common elements in the process of deduction. A jurist delves into 'Ilmul Fiqh and endeavors to derive a law of the Shari'ah by adding the particular elements for that case in a legal discussion to the common elements obtained in 'Ilmul Usul. A specialist in 'Ilmul Usul, on the other hand, studies the common elements in the process of deduction and places them at the search of the jurists.

 

THE SUBJECT MATTER OF 'ILMUL USUL

Every branch of knowledge usually has a basic subject matter on which all its discussions are centered and around which they revolve, aiming to discover the characteristics,

conditions and laws pertaining to the said subject matter. Thus, for example, the subject matter of physics is nature and the discussions and researches of physics are all connected with nature, so we attempt to discover natural conditions and natural laws. Similarly the subject matter of grammar is the word, as it discusses the various cases and conditions of words. Thus the question arises, as to what is the subject matter of 'Ilmul Usul to the study of which we devote all our attention, and around which all its discussions revolve.

If we keep in mind the definition which we have mentioned above, we conclude that 'Ilmul Usul in reality, studies the same process of deduction which the jurists study in 'Ilmul Fiqh, and all the discussions of 'Ilmul Usul are connected with the close examination of this process and also bringing out their common elements. Thus the

process of deduction is the subject matter of 'Ilmul Usul, in view of its being a science  of studying the common elements which enter into processes, such as, the validity of

al-Zuhur al-'Urfi and al-Khabar as proofs.

 

'ILMUL USUL IS THE LOGIC OF 'ILMUL FIQH

Your knowledge of logic would no doubt permit us to cite the science of logic as an example in discussing 'Ilmul Usul. As you know, the science of logic studies, in reality, the process of thinking, whatever may be its kind or scope or academic field, and establishes a general system that must be followed by the process of thinking in order that it should be correct. For example, the science of logic teaches us how we must proceed in reasoning, in view of its being a process of thinking, in order that our reasoning be correct. How do we prove that Socrates is mortal? How do we prove that the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles? How do we prove that a lunar eclipse is caused by the earth coming in between the sun and the moon?

 

The science of logic replies to all these questions through the general methods of reasoning like analogy and induction, which apply to these different fields of knowledge. Thus the science of logic is the science of the very process of thinking as it lays down the general methods and elements for it.

 

From this angle, 'Ilmul Usul resembles the science of logic apart from its discussing, a special category of thinking i.e. the process of legal thinking to derive laws. 'Ilmul Usul studies the general common elements which the process of deduction must include and be in conformity with, in order to arrive at correct deduction, the conclusions, which the jurists will accept. Thus 'Ilmul Usul teaches us how we derive the rule of immersion in water for one, who is fasting, How do we derive the rule of purifying a thing with the water of a cistern i.e. Kur [3]. How do we derive that the Idd prayers are obligatory? How do we derive the prohibition of defiling a masjid? How do we derive that a sale affected through coercion is null and void? All these questions are clarified by 'Ilmul Usul by setting up general methods for the process of deduction and pointing out the common elements in it.

 

Thus, we can call 'Ilmul Usul "the logic of 'Ilmul Fiqh" because the former plays an active part in 'Ilmul Fiqh analogous to the positive role performed by the science of logic in different sciences and in human thought generally. On this basis it is the logic of 'Ilmul Fiqh, or in other words, "the logic of the process of deduction".

 

We conclude from all this that 'Ilmul Fiqh is the science of the process of deduction and 'Ilmul Usul is the logic of that process, which brings out its common elements, and establishes a general system on which 'Ilmul Fiqh must rely.

 

NOTES

 

[1] By al-Nass or text here, we intend the words transmitted from the infallible Prophet or Imam.

 

[2] In the terminology of 'Ilmul Usul, Hujjiyah means the validity as a  proof to justify the master punishing his servant if he had not acted according to it and to justify the servant seeking release from punishment by his master if he had acted thereby. So every proof having this dual capacity is deemed as Hujjah in the terminology of 'Ilmul Usul. Apparent words of the master belong to this category. That is why it is called Hujjiyah.

 

[3] 1 Kurr means water which takes 27 cubic span space (3x3x3). It is better to make it 42 -78 cub. ft. Note: 1 span = 9 inches.

 

The importance of 'Ilmul Usul in the process of Deduction

After the above discussion, we are no longer in need of stressing the importance of 'Ilmul Usul and the significance of its role in the sphere of deduction, because, as long as it presents its common elements and lays down a general system for it, then, it is the backbone of the process of deduction, and its guiding force. Thus, without 'Ilmul Usul, an individual would confront in jurisprudence scattered heaps of texts and evidences, without being able to use, or benefit from them through deduction. This is similar to a man who is given the tools of carpentry like a saw and an axe, and who does not know the head or tail of the techniques of carpentry and the method of utilizing those tools. Just as the common elements, which 'Ilmul Usul studies, are essential for the process of deduction, similarly the particular elements which vary from one legal problem to another, like the scattered terms and expressions of the Qur'an and the Riwāyāt (Traditions), which constitute these particular varying elements in the process of deduction, attribute to other essential parts, without which deduction is not possible. And a mere knowledge and comprehension of the common elements which 'Ilmul Usul

describes will not suffice for the success of deduction.

 

Also, anyone attempting the process of deduction on the basis of only the knowledge given by 'Ilmul Usul, is similar to one possessing the general theoretical knowledge of carpentry but not having before him any axe, saw or other tools of carpentry. Just as the latter will be unable to build a wooden bed, for instance, the former will be unable to carry out deduction unless he examines and scrutinizes the varying particular elements as well.

 

Thus, we come to know that the common elements and the particular elements are two conjoint poles of the process of deduction and both are indispensable for it. It is therefore incumbent upon anyone attempting the process of deduction to study the common elements as defined by 'Ilmul Usul and then to add to it the particular elements, obtained from studies of 'Ilmul Fiqh, so that he may complete the process of deduction which occurs in 'Ilmul Fiqh.

 

USUL AND FIQH REPRESENT THE THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION

We are afraid that we may have given you a wrong idea when we said that he, who is attempting to carry out deduction must study in 'Ilmul Usul, the common elements and define them and then take the particular elements from 'Ilmul Fiqh, so that he may complete the process of deduction. This is because some may thereby feel that once we have studied the common elements in the process of deduction from 'Ilmul Usul and we come to know, for example, the validity of al-Khabar and of al-Zuhur al-'Urfi as proofs, as well as other such common elements, there would be no need of any further intellectual exertion on our part, and that we would need nothing further after possessing those elements, than to merely extract the traditions and valid texts where they are located just as one extracts the date of the Battle of Khaybar or the reports about the Hejra (migration of the Holy Prophet (p) from Mecca to Medina) from the biographies of the Prophet.

 

Thus the job of the jurist in 'Ilmul Fiqh would be confined to merely searching for the particular elements from the traditions and valid texts, so that these may be added to the common elements, and he may derive from them the laws of the Shari'ah. And this would be an easy and simple task in view of its needing no intellectual effort. The result of it would be that the intellectual effort exerted by the Mujtahid in the process of deduction would be represented by laying down the common elements and their systematization and study in 'Ilmul Usul, and not in gathering the particular elements from the valid texts, traditions and other sources in 'Ilmul Fiqh.

 

The above conception is, to a large extent, misleading because the Mujtahid, after studying the common elements in the process of deduction and defining them in 'Ilmul

Usul, is not contented with blindly collecting the particular elements from the books of traditions (ahādith) and narrations, for example; but it remains for him, in 'Ilmul Fiqh, to apply those common elements and their general theory to the particular elements; and application is an important intellectual task which naturally requires careful study and thorough examination. The intellectual effort spent in 'Ilmul Usul in studying the common elements and formulating their general theory cannot dispense with the fresh effort required for drawing conclusion.

 

We are not, at this juncture, able to present a variety of examples to show clearly the effort needed for the process of application, because the understanding of those examples would depend on a prior knowledge of the general theories of 'Ilmul Usul. Therefore presenting one simple example however shall suffice.

 

Let us suppose that the Mujtahid has accepted in 'Ilmul Usul the validity of al-Zuhur al-'Urfi as a proof, together with its being a common element in the process of deduction. Will it then suffice to place his finger on the narration of Ali ibn Mahziyir (which established the scope of khums), for instance, then to add it to that common element and to derive from it a law that khums is not obligatory on wealth inherited from one's father? Is not the Mujtahid, in need of scrutinizing the meaning of the text in the narration to come to know the kind of meaning given to it in general usage, and of studying everything that is connected with establishing al-Zuhur al-'Urfi, like the different contexts and characteristics, both within and without the framework of the text so that he may be able to honestly apply the common element expressing the validity of al-Zuhur al-'Urfi as proof? Thus in this example, after discovering the common element and accepting al-Zuhur al-'Urfi as proof there yet remains the difficulty of fixing the nature of al-Zuhur in the text, and of studying its relations and contexts, until the Mujtahid is sure that he has established al-Zuhur in the valid text and its proving positively the non-obligation of khums on inherited wealth, apply to the text the general theory established by the common element stating the validity of al-Zuhur al-'Urfi as proof, and he deduces from it the law  that Khums is not obligatory in such a case.

 

In the light of the above, we come to know that the legal study to arrive at the particular elements in the process of deduction is not merely a matter of collection, but its scope goes further in applying the general theories established by the common elements in the process of deduction. And the application of general theories always has its own difficulties and endurance, and mere struggle in the general theories does not dispense with the endurance needed in their application. Do you not see that one who studies in depth the general theories in medicine, stands in need of thoroughness, alertness, caution and deep thinking in the field of their application, in addition to examining the pathological symptoms, so that he may properly apply those theories to the patient under his care?

 

Thus the studies of the specialist in 'Ilmul Usul concerning the common elements and the general theories laid down, resemble the studies of a physician concerning the general theories in medicine. And the studies of the jurist concerning the particular elements in the field of applying those general theories are like the studies of the physician concerning the symptoms of the patient in the field of applying those general medical theories to him. And just as the physician stands in need of a great degree of research work so that he may apply those general theories to the patient correctly and bring about whatever cure is possible, similarly the jurist, after completing the study of 'Ilmul Usul concerning the common elements and the general theories, and after confronting a problem in the sphere of legal research and studies (like the problems of khums, or fasting, etc.) stands in need of deep thinking about how to apply those common elements correctly to the particular elements in the problem mentioned before.

 

Thus, we come to know that 'Ilmul Usul, which describes the common elements, is "the science of general theories"; while 'Ilmul Fiqh, which consists of the particular elements, is "the science of applying those theories in the field of the particular elements". Each of them demands research and special intellectual effort.

 

Deduction is the result of the blending of the theories with their application, i.e. of the common elements with the particular elements. This process of blending is the process of deduction. The research needed in formulating the general theories does not dispense with the exactness required in applying them during the process of deduction.

 

The Second Martyr, Zaynuddin Jabal Āmili, has referred to the importance of this application in the field of law and what it demands of exactness in his book of "laws", is as follows, "Yes, together with that (with formulating general theories) it is stipulated that he has the power and ability to refer the derivative matters to their original sources and to draw conclusion from it and this is the basic issue of this chapter.... And that power is in the Hands of Allah and because of its important role, He bestows it on whomsoever He pleases from among His servants, in accordance with His wisdom and purpose, to those who strive hard and are capable".

 

INTERACTION BETWEEN THE THINKING OF 'ILMUL USUL AND THAT OF 'ILMUL FIQH

We have come to know that 'Ilmul Usul plays the role of logic in relation to 'Ilmul Fiqh and that the relationship between these two is the relationship of theory to its application, because 'Ilmul Usul formulates the general theories by establishing the common elements in the process of deduction, while 'Ilmul Fiqh applies those theories and common elements to the particular elements, which vary from problem to problem.

 

The strong mutual bond between 'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh explains the reciprocal interaction between the outlook of the former (i.e. the standard of intellectual research at the level of theory) and the outlook of the latter (i.e. the standard of intellectual research at the level of application). This is because, any extension of the researches on application would advance the researches on theory a step forward, owing to the fact that such an extension would raise new difficulties before it and would compel 'Ilmul Usul to formulate general theories to solve those difficulties. Similarly, the accuracy and thoroughness needed in research in theory is reflected at the level of application, and as the theories become more subtle, they demand greater probe, depth and comprehension for their application.

 

The history of these two branches of knowledge, 'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh, emphasizes the mutual interaction between their outlooks and levels of thought all along the line, and reveals clearly the various stages through which these two have passed in the history of knowledge. 'Ilmul Usul has expanded and extended gradually following

extensions in the studies of 'Ilmul Fiqh. Since extensions at the level of legal application directed the attention of those making the application to new difficulties. And the suitable solutions laid down for these difficulties took the form of common elements in 'Ilmul Usul. Similarly abstruseness in the common elements in 'Ilmul Usul and establishing their well-defined limits were reflected at the level of application, since every time the general theories were expressed in more difficult and subtle forms, they become more complex and demanded greater care and attention at the level of application.

 

We cannot, at this juncture, present any examples from these two branches of knowledge to show their interaction, as we are in the first stage, and the student does not, as yet possess enough knowledge about the researches of 'Ilmul Usul. Hence, it is enough for the student, at present, to know that the interaction between 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usul is one instance of the long line of interaction in many fields, between the studies on the

theories and on their application. Does not the application of medical theories by the physician on his patients on a large scale, continuously present new difficulties to him? And do the studies on general medical theories not come up with solutions for such difficulties? Do these theories not then become gradually more complex? Is this greater complexity then not reflected in future applications? And as the number of theories increased for the physician so did application become a greater task for him. All of us know that the physician of the past years was content in the field of application with checking the pulse of the patient, and thus his task was over in a few moments. However, today, the physician continues to study the condition of the patient through a complex and extensive procedure.

 

The same phenomenon of mutual interaction between the outlooks of 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usul, (the latter plays the role of logic in relation to the former) is found between the generalized academic thinking and the general outlook of logic, which studies the fundamental system of human thought. Every time the scope of human knowledge widens and its fields offer greater variety, new difficulties arise in the way of putting forward proofs in the general system of thought. Logic then attempts to overcome these difficulties and to develop and perfect its theories in such a way as to preserve for itself the supreme power of directing and systematizing human thought. In any case this concept of interaction, whether it be between 'Ilmul Fiqh and its special logic, as represented by 'Ilmul Fiqh, or between all branches of knowledge and general logic, or between the studies on any theory and the studies on its application, requires greater clarification and explanation. At present, we do not intend to refer to that concept, but to arouse the mind of the student, even if it may be by a brief description given above.

 

EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS ANSWERED BY 'ILMUL USUL

For the benefit of the student who does not possess information about the studies and researches of 'Ilmul Usul, it is best that we present a list consisting of examples of the questions which are considered to be solved by 'Ilmul Usul, in order to (depict, in a practical form, the importance of the role it plays in deduction.

 

1.  What is the evidence for the validity of the narration of a reliable and trustworthy person as proof?

 

2.  Why is it obligatory that we explain legal texts in the light of general usage?

 

3.  What do we do if we come across a problem for which we find no evidence that reveals the nature of the law of the Shari'ah relating to it?

 

4.  What is the value of the majority in a legal problem?  And is a particular view of Shari'ah generally bound to be accepted if its exponents are many in number?

 

5.  What do we do if we come across two texts, the meanings of which are not in agreement (with each other)?

 

6.  What should be our stand-point if we had previously been certain about a given law of the Shari 'ah and then doubts arise about its continuing to hold good?

 

7.  What are the words that clearly and directly indicate obligation? And are they to be considered as imperative like the following "Take a bath!" "Perform ablution!"  "Offer prayers!".

And so on numerous questions 'Ilmul Usul answers, and establishes thereby the common elements in the process of deduction and fills every gap which it is possible for a jurist to face in the process of deriving a law of the Shari'ah, i.e. of deduction.

 

PERMISSIBILITY OF ISTINBĀT

In the light of what has preceded, we have come to know that 'Ilmul Usul plays the role of logic in relation to the process of deduction, because it consists of the common elements of the latter and expresses them as general laws in a comprehensive system. Therefore no individual should attempt to carry out the process of deduction without first

studying 'Ilmul Usul.

 

Since 'Ilmul Usul is so closely connected with the process of deduction, we must first of all know the viewpoint of the Shari'ah about this process. Firstly, has the Almighty Law-giver permitted anyone to carry out deduction? If He has permitted it then it is reasonable that the branch of knowledge called 'Ilmul Usul be established to study the common elements of deduction. However, if He has prohibited it, then deduction would be null and void, and consequently 'Ilmul Usul would be null and void since this branch of knowledge was developed in order to make deduction possible. Thus if there were no deduction, there would be no need of 'Ilmul Usul, because it would thereby lose its raison d'etre (purpose). Thus it is essential that we study this point in a fundamental form.

 

In fact, this point the question of the permissibility of deduction, when it is submitted for study in the form in which we have presented it does not appear worthy of serious thinking and intellectual research. This is because if we ask ourselves, "Is it permissible for us to carry out the process of deduction? ' the answer is in the affirmative, because deduction, as we have come to know in the foregoing, consists of "the delineation of the practical stand-point vis-à-vis the Shari 'ah through valid evidence and proofs". Obviously man, by virtue of his subordination to the Shari'ah and of the obligation on him to obey its laws, is compelled to delineate the required practical standpoint. And since the laws of the Shari'ah are mostly not obvious and clear to the extent that setting out proofs can be dispensed with, it is reasonable that the delineation of the practical stand-point through valid evidence and proofs would not be prohibited to the whole of mankind, and they would be forbidden to examine the proofs which delineate their stand-point vis-à-vis the Shari'ah. Thus the process of deduction would be not only permissible, but it is also essential that it should be adopted. This necessity arises from man's subordination to the Shari'ah and any dispute about that would be at the level of a dispute about self-evident truths.

 

However, it happens that this point has, unfortunately, taken up a new form, which is not free from ambiguity and confusion, and has on that account become the cause of differences. The word "Ijtihad" has been used to express the process of deduction and the question arises. Is Ijtihad permissible in the Shari'ah? Since this word "Ijtihad" is under discussion (and it is a word that has been given a variety of meanings during its history) it has projected all those previous meanings into the discussion. This has resulted in a group of our modern 'Ulema replying to the question in the negative, and consequently condemning the whole of 'Ilmul Usul, since it is needed because of Ijtihad, and if Ijtihad is null and void, then there remains no need for 'Ilmul Usul.

 

By way of clarifying that point, we must mention the development undergone by the word Ijtihad to show that the dispute that has arisen over the process of Ijtihad and the outcry against it, are nothing but the result of a superficial understanding of the academic term "Ijtihad", and of a disregard of the development it has undergone.

 

 

THE MEANING OF IJTIHAD

Literally "Ijtihad" is derived from the word Juhd and means "doing one's utmost to perform any action whatsoever". This word was first used in the field of jurisprudence to express one of the rules laid down by the Sunni schools of Fiqh, following their founding. This rule states that, "When a jurist wants to derive a law of the Shari'ah and he doesn't find any text referring to it in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, he should have recourse to Ijtihad in lieu of such a text. Here Ijtihad means "individual thinking". Thus a jurist not finding any valid text would resort to his specific individual thinking or Divine inspiration and would base laws of the Shari'ah on the basis of his thinking. This process is also expressed by the term Rā'y (opinion).

 

Ijtihad, in this meaning, is the expression of one of the proofs used by a jurist and one of his sources of law. So just as a jurist relies on the Qur'an and the Sunnah and uses them as proofs and evidence, similarly he relies on his own Ijtihad and uses it as proof and evidence in cases where there are no suitable texts.

 

The major schools of Sunni Fiqh have proclaimed this meaning of Ijtihad, and at their head is the school of Abu Hanifa. At the same time tough opposition was met from the Imams of the Ahlal Bayt and the jurists attached to their schools of thought as we shall come across in the forthcoming discussion.

 

An examination of the word "Ijtihad " shows that it was used to express this meaning since the time of the Imams (a) up to the seventh century (A.H.). Thus the traditions related from the Imams of the Ahlal Bayt condemned Ijtihad, i.e., that principle of Fiqh that adopts individual thinking as one of the sources of Islamic law. The attack on this principle also found its way into the literary works composed during the period of the Imams (a) and of the narrators who transmitted their traditions. This attack used the word Ijtihad mostly to express that principle, which can be seen from the usage in these traditions. Thus Abdullah ibn Abdur Rahman Zubayri wrote a book called "Al-Istifadah fi al-Ta'un ala'l awa'il wa 'r-radd 'ala as'hāb al-Ijtihad wa'l- Qiyās", while Hilal ibn Ibrahim ibn Abi al-Fath al-Madani wrote a book on the topic named "Al-radd 'ala man radda āthār Rasul wa 'tamada 'ala natā'ij il-'uqul. (The rejection of those who ignore the traditions of the messenger and rely on their intellectual conclusions). Isma 'il ibn Ali ibn Ishaq ibn Abi Sahl Nawbakhti wrote a book during the period of the minor occultation or thereabouts on the rejection of Isa ibn Aban concerning Ijtihad. The above has been mentioned by Najāshi, the biographer, in his biography of each of the above.

 

Just after the minor occultation we find Shaykh Saduq in the middle of the fourth century A.H. continuing that attack. Here we quote, as an example, the critical comments from his book on the story of Musa and Khizr: "Musa -in spite of perfection of intellect, superiority and cleverness bestowed on him by Allah was not able to perceive through the rational processes of deduction, (istidlāl) the meaning of the actions of Khizr, so much so that the reasons therefore became obscure to him. Now if it were not permissible for the Prophets and Messengers of Allah to exercise Qiyās (analogy), Istidlāl (reasoning) and Istikhrāj (deduction), for others who are below them in rank, it would be all the more not permissible. Thus if Musa was not entitled to make a choice in spite of his superiority and cleverness, how then can the Muslim ummah be entitled to make a choice in the matter of the Imam? And how can they be entitled to derive the rules of the Shari'ah through deduction using their defective intellects and differences of views?"

 

In the closing years of the fourth century A.H. arose Shaykh Mufid writing along the same lines and making an attack on the concept of Ijtihad, which he used to mean the principle of Islamic law mentioned above. His book on this subject is called "an-Naqd 'ala ibn Junayd fi ijtihadir rā'y" (The Criticism on Ibn Junayd regarding the matter of

Ijtihad).

 

We find the same usage of Ijtihad by Sayyid Murtaza at the commencement of the fifth century. He wrote in al-Zhari'ah criticizing Ijtihad: "Ijtihad is null and void and for those who follow the Imams, to act on conjecture, opinion and Ijtihad is not permissible". He also wrote in his book on Fiqh, "al-Intisār", alluding to Ibn Junayd: "The dependence of Ibn Junayd in this problem is on a kind of opinion and Ijtihad, and his error therein is obvious". And in the chapter on cleanliness (Tahārah) in his book al-Intisār, he wrote concerning the question of wiping one's two feet, "we do not consider Ijtihad nor do we advocate it".

 

This usage of the word Ijtihad continued after that (period) also. Thus Shaykh Tusi, who died about the middle of the fifth century wrote in Kitab al-Iddah as follows: "As for Qiyās (analogy) and Ijtihad, in our opinion they are not valid proofs. On the contrary, their use is forbidden in the Shari'ah".

 

At the commencement of the sixth century, on the question of the contradiction between two statements of evidence, Ibn Idris considered a number of grounds for preferring one to the other. He afterwards wrote: "There is no preference on any other ground in our school of thought, and Qiyās, Istihsān and Ijtihad are all null and void in our opinion".

 

The above texts, presented in their historical and chronological sequence, prove clearly that the word Ijtihad was used to denote the above mentioned principle of Islamic law up to the commencement of the seventh century. On this basis, the word acquired a distasteful connotation and the sign of dislike and disgust in the legal outlook of the Imamiyah school of thought as a result of the latter's opposition to that principle and their belief in its being null and void.

 

However the word Ijtihad was used in a different sense in the terminology used by our jurists. Thus no Shi'ite text describing this development is found historically prior to Kitab al-Ma'ārij by Muhaqqiq Hilli (d. 676 A.H.) who wrote under the heading "The Reality of Ijtihad" as follows: "It is, in the terminology of the jurists, doing one's utmost to derive the laws of the Shari'ah. Hence, the deduction of laws from the proofs and evidence available in the Shari'ah constitutes Ijtihad, because such laws are mostly based on the points of view of a theory which is not deduced from the explicit meaning of any text, whether such a proof is based on analogy or otherwise. Thus Qiyās (analogy) is one of the kinds of Ijtihad. Therefore, if it is said that it is accordingly imperative that the Imamiyah school of thought is one of the exponents of Ijtihad, we will reply that it is so, and that there is the suggestion that Qiyās is one of the kinds of Ijtihad. Thus even if we exclude Qiyās, we shall still be among the exponents of Ijtihad in deriving the laws of the Shari'ah by other theoretical ways apart from Qiyās".

 

It is quite obvious from the above quotation that the word Ijtihad continued to be burdened with the stamp of its first usage in the Imammiyah outlook. This quotation

points out that there are those who refrain from using this description and on whom calling the Imamiyah jurists  Mujtahids, weighs heavily. However Muhaqqiaq Hilli does

not refrain from using the term Ijtihad after it had developed and changed in the usage of the Jurists in such a way as to be in agreement with the methods of deduction in the Imammiyah school of thought. Thus Ijtihad was previously used to denote a source of Islamic law, from which the jurist derives laws, and furnish a proof for it, just as the verses of the Qur'an and the traditions are regarded sources. In the new usage it came to denote the jurist's utmost effort in deriving a law of the Shari'ah from the valid proofs and sources, but it was not considered as one of the sources used for deduction. On the contrary, Ijtihad meant the very process of deduction carried out by a jurist to derive a law from its valid sources.

 

The difference between the two meanings is quite important. In the first usage of Ijtihad, the jurist derives laws on the basis of his own individual views and particular inclinations in cases where the valid texts are not adequate. Thus if he is asked, "What is your proof and your source for this law which you have derived?" He will reply: "The proof is my own Ijtihad and individual views".

 

However, in the new usage of Ijtihad, the jurist is not permitted to justify any laws of the Shari'ah by Ijtihad, as in this second meaning, Ijtihad is not a source for laws, but it is the process of deduction to derive laws from their sources. Thus if a jurist says: "This is my Ijtihad", he means that this is what he has derived through deduction from the sources of laws and from valid proofs. Thus we will have the right to demand of him, to indicate to us those sources and proofs from which he derived the law.

 

This new meaning for the word Ijtihad also underwent development and transformation. Muhaqqiq Hilli had limited it to the field of the operations of deduction, which are not based on the explicit meanings of texts. Thus every act of deduction that does not depend on the explicit meanings of texts will be termed Ijtihad. Perhaps the reason for this limitation is that the deduction of a law regarding the explicit meaning of a text does not involve enough effort and academic labour to be termed Ijtihad.

 

Then the scope of Ijtihad widened afterwards and included the process of deduction of a law from the explicit meaning of a text also. This is because the specialists in 'Ilmul Usul then rightly realized that the process of deduction of a law, from the explicit meaning of a text, involved much intellectual effort and labour in arriving at the exact meaning and its limitation and in proving the validity of al-Zuhurul 'Urfi (general usage) as a proof. This

expansion in the meaning of the term Ijtihad did not cease there, but in a new development it came to include all forms of the process of deduction. Thus under the

heading of Ijtihad came every process carried out by a jurist to determine the practical standpoint vis-à-vis the Shari'ah either by establishing out the proofs for the law of the Shari'ah, or by defining that practical standpoint directly.

 

Hence, Ijtihad came to be synonymous with the process of deduction. Consequently 'Ilmul Usul became an essential branch of knowledge for the implementation of Ijtihad. In other words it is the science of the common elements in the process of deduction.

 

These developments sustained by the word Ijtihad as a technical term are, to a great extent, related to the developments of academic thought itself. The elucidation of the above will be possible through our study of the history of 'Ilmul Usul.

 

In light of the above, we can explain the standpoint of that group of Muhaddithin (traditionalists) opposing Ijtihad and consequently condemning 'Ilmul Usul. The word Ijtihad frightened them because it carried the heritage of the first usage, against which the Ahlal Bayt (Progeny of the Prophet) had launched a severe attack. The scholars also prohibited Ijtihad, the banner of which was being carried by the Mujtahids among our jurists, and they based this prohibition on the standpoint of the Imams and their school of thought against Ijtihad. They are, however, not aware that the standpoint of the Imams was against the first meaning of Ijtihad, while the jurists among our companions are propounding the second meaning of it.

 

The process of deduction however faced a strong and persistent attack because of the attack on Ijtihad. Consequently the attack extended to 'Ilmul Usul because of its relation to the process of deduction and to Ijtihad. However, after having distinguished between the two meanings of Ijtihad, we are now able to restore the problem to its natural form, and to demonstrate clearly that the permissibility of Ijtihad in the meaning, synonymous to the process of deduction, is one of the self-evident truths.

 

Since the process of deduction to derive a law of the Shari'ah is obviously permissible, it is essential that it should be preserved by 'Ilmul Usul through the study of the common elements in that process.

 

After we have established the permissibility of the process of deduction in Islam, there remain two points for us to study:

 

1.  Does Islam permit this process at every age and to every individual or does it permit it only to some individuals and at certain ages?

 

2.  Just as Islam permits an individual to make deductions to derive a law relating to himself, does it also permit him to make deduction to derive laws relating to others and to deliver formal legal verdicts for that?

 

We shall soon study these two points in the forth-coming discussions, which we have prepared for the higher stages of the study of this science.

 

 

The main sources of proving validity in 'Ilmul Usul

We have come to know that the process of deduction consists of common as well as particular elements, and that 'Ilmul Usul is the science, which deals with the common

elements in which elements are studied, defined and systematized.

 

Since 'Ilmul Usul is the science responsible for the study of these common elements, the basic question naturally arises: What are the sources which 'Ilmul Usul utilizes to prove the validity of al-Khabar or al-Zuhurul'Urfi etc., as proofs, from the common elements in the process of deduction ?

 

A similar type of question is faced in every branch of knowledge. For instance, in relation to the natural sciences we ask: What are the means of proof which these sciences

utilize to discover and establish natural laws? The answer is that the chief source of proof in the natural sciences is experimentation. Or in relation to grammar we ask: What are the means of proof utilized by the grammarian to discover the laws relating to the inflection of a word and to define the conditions in which it is placed in the nominative or the accusative case? The answer is that in grammar the main sources of proof are the quotations from the basic sources of the language and the words originally used. Thus 'Ilmul Usul has necessarily to face this question and to lay down, at the very beginning, the sources of proof, which, it has to utilize to establish and define the common elements.

 

In this connection we can say that the main methods of proof (or proving validity) which 'Ilmul Usul has to utilize, can be reduced to two categories, viz.,

 

1. al-Bayān al-Shar'i (The text of Qur'an or the Sunnah).

2. al-Idrāk al-'Aqli (Intellectual discernment).

 

Thus no proposition acquires the mark of a common element in the process of deduction, nor is it permissible to utilize it in this process unless it can be proved by one of these two main methods. Therefore, if the specialist in 'Ilmul Usul is endeavoring to study, for instance, the validity of al-Khabar (report) as a proof, so that he may utilize it in the process of deduction, if it happens to be valid, he will ask himself these two questions:

 

(a) Is there any al-Bayān al-Shar'i (i.e. text of the Qur'an or the Sunnah) which indicates the validity of al-Khabar as a proof?

 

(b) Do we discern with our intellects or not that it is a valid proof that has to be followed?

 

The specialist in 'Ilmul Usul will endeavour in his study to answer these two questions in accordance with the level of meticulousness and caution. If, therefore, he concludes his study with answers in the negative to both the questions, it means that he possesses no sources of proving the validity of al-Khabar as a proof. Consequently, he would exclude al-Khabar from the scope of deduction. If, however, he is able to answer in the affirmative to either of the two questions, it means that he can prove the validity of al-Khabar as a proof and can include it in the process of deduction as a common element in 'Ilmul Usul. We shall see in the forthcoming discussions that a number of common elements have been proved by the first source (i.e. al-Bayān al-Shar'i or a text of the  Qur'an or the Sunnah) while a number of others have been proved by the second (i.e. al-Idrāk ul-'Aqli or intellectual discernment). In the first category falls the validity of

al-Khabar and al-Zuhurul'Urfi as proofs, while an example of the second type is the law that states "an act cannot be both obligatory and prohibited at the same time".

 

In the light of the above we come to know that it is essential, before beginning the study of 'Ilmul Usul, to determine the common elements, so that we may study the fundamental sources which this science has to use to prove the validity of those elements, and to define their limitations so that afterwards we can use them in accordance with those limitations.

 

TEXT OF THE QUR'AN OR THE SUNNAH

Al-Bayān al-Shar'i is one of the two fundamental means of proving the validity of the elements that participate in the process of deduction. By al-Bayān al-Shar'i we mean the following:

 

(i) The Holy Book, i.e. the Qur'an that was sent down miraculously through revelation of both meaning and words, to the noblest of the Messengers -Muhammad (P).

 

(ii) al-Sunnah, i.e. every statement originating from the Messenger or from one of the twelve infallible Imams. The statements originating from them are of three types:

 

(a) al-Bayānul Ijābi al-Qauli, i.e. the words spoken by one of the infallibles.

 

(b) al-Bayānu'l Ijābi al-Fe'li, i.e. an act done by one of the infallibles.

 

(c) al-Bayān al-Salbi, i.e. the silence of one of the infallibles about a specific situation in such a way as to  reveal his approval of it and its being in. conformity with the Shari'ah.

 

It is incumbent that we take all forms of' Bayān Shar'i into consideration. Thus if anyone form, demonstrates the validity of a common element in the process of deduction then that common element is proved and acquires the stamp of legality in the Shari'ah.

 

In this connection there are a number of points to be discussed, but we shall leave these for the forthcoming discussions.

 

INTELLECTUAL DISCERNMENT

Al-Idrakul 'Aqli is the second fundamental source used in the researches of 'Ilmul Usul to prove the validity of the common elements in the process of deduction. A common element in the process of deduction is that which we discern with our intellect without the necessity of recourse to al-Bayān al-Shar'i to prove its validity. AI-Idrākul 'Aqli is of the nature of the law that "an act cannot be both prohibited and obligatory at the same time". We are not in need of any al-Bayān al-Shar'i, consisting of the form of laws of this type in order to prove the validity of this law. It is proved through reason because the intellect discerns that obligation and prohibition are two contradictory qualities and that a single entity cannot simultaneously have two contradictory qualities. So just as a body cannot have the qualities of both motion and rest at the same time, similarly an act cannot both be obligatory and forbidden.

 

Al-Idrākul 'Aqli has various sources and different degrees. As far as sources go, al- Idrākul 'Aqli includes the following.

 

(a) Intellectual discernment based on sense-experience and experimentation. An example of this is our discernment that water boils if its temperature reaches 1000 C. and that placing water on fire for a long time will cause it to boil.

 

(b) Intellectual discernment based on self-evident truths. Examples of this are the discernments of all of us that one is half of two or that two contradictories cannot coexist in

one entity and that the whole is greater than the part. These facts are self-evident and reason is naturally impelled to (accept) them without any effort or hesitation.

 

 

(c) Intellectual discernment based on theoretical speculation. An example of this is our discernment that the effect will cease once the cause ceases. This fact is not self-evident and reason is not naturally impelled to accept it. But it is discerned through speculation based on proofs and arguments.

 

The different degrees in which al-Idrākul 'Aqli is divided include the following:

 

(i) Complete, definite discernment: This is the type of intellectual discernment of a fact in which there can be no error or doubt, e.g. our discernment that the sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles, or that two contradictories cannot simultaneously coexist in the same entity, or that the earth is spherical or that water becomes heated when placed on fire.

 

(ii) Imperfect intellectual discernment: This is the inclination of the mind to consider a thing likely without complete certainty owing to the possibility of error, e.g. our discernment that the horse which won previous races will win next time also, or that the medicines which succeeded in curing specific diseases will succeed in curing diseases with similar symptoms, or that an act, which resembles a prohibited act, in most cases, shares the quality of prohibition also.

 

The basic question, in this study is: What are the limitations of reason or of intellectual discernment that function as a fundamental means of proving the validity of the common elements in the process of deduction? Thus is it possible to use intellectual discernment as a means of proving validity regardless of its source or reliability or is it not permissible to use it to establish validity except within fixed limits as regards its source or reliability?

 

Concerning this point, this study is directed more to the treatment of the question of reliability than to the treatment of the question of source. The researches of 'Ilmul Usul concerning the limitations of reason from the point of view of reliability have become extensive. The views concerning the scope of reason and its limitations also differ

vis-à-vis using it as a fundamental means for proving validity. Thus the question arises as to whether imperfect intellectual discernment (which leads only to probability and likelihood) can be included, or whether it should be restricted to complete definite intellectual discernment (which gives certainty).

 

Thus, the history of this study is extensive in the field of 'Ilmul Usul and in the field of the history of legal thinking as well, as we shall see later.

 

CONTRADICTORY TENDENCIES REGARDING AL-IDRĀKUL 'AQLI

The history of legal thinking reveals two completely contradictory tendencies regarding this point, One tendency calls for the use of reason in its extensive sphere including the imperfect intellectual discernments as a fundamental source for establishing validity in the different fields studied by the specialists in 'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh. The other tendency sharply criticizes reason and divests it of its being a fundamental means of proving validity. This second tendency considers al-Bayān al-Shar'i as the sole means that can be used in the process of deduction.

 

Between these two extremist tendencies, there is a third moderate tendency represented by the majority of the jurists of the school of thought of the Ahlal Bayt. This tendency believes, contrary to the second one mentioned above, that reason or intellectual discernment is a fundamental means of proving validity in addition to al-Bayān al-Shar'i, but not in the unqualified manner propounded by the first tendency and only within the

limits wherein man achieves total satisfaction and definite intellectual discernment about which there is no likelihood of error. Thus every intellectual perception, which falls within this category and conveys complete certainty, is a means for proving validity. However the imperfect intellectual discernments that are based on likelihood, and are not capable of giving the element of certainty, are not valid as means for proving the validity of any of the elements in the process of deduction.

 

Thus reason, according to this third tendency, is a valid instrument of knowledge and deserves to be relied on and to establish validity, if it leads to the definite discernment of any fact to which no doubt is attached. Thus neither there is rejection of reason as an instrument of knowledge, nor is there exaggeration in relying on it where it does not give a definite and certain discernment.

 

This moderate tendency, represented by the majority of the jurists of the school of thought of Ahlal Bayt, demanded that those jurists should engage in the combat on two fronts -one against the first tendency which the Ahlar Rā'y (the exponents of the use of individual judgments) adopted under the leadership of a group of eminent scholars from the general public, and the other against the internal movement within the ranks of the Imami jurists, represented by the traditionalists and Akhbāris {the exponents of al-Hadith and al-Khabar) from among the Shi'ah scholars, who sharply criticized reason and claimed that al-Bayān al-Shar'i is the sole means, which can be used to prove validity. Thus we come to know that the first struggle was against the unqualified use of reason and the second in defense of its use in a qualified manner.

 

STRUGGLE AGAINST THE UNQUALIFIED USE OF REASON

During the middle of the second century (A.H.) there arose a school of thought of jurisprudence known as the school of thought of Rā'y and Ijtihad (with the first meaning of the latter as discussed in Chapter 2). This school propounded the use of reason (in its extensive meaning including probability, conjecture, and individual estimation) as a basic instrument for proving validity in addition to al-Bayān al-Shar'i and as a fundamental source for the jurist in the process of deduction. This process was given the name of Ijtihad.

 

Heading this school or among its leaders was Abu Hanifah (d. 150 A.H.). It has been transmitted from the leading personalities of this school that whenever they did not find any al-Bayān al-Shar'i indicating the law of the Shari'ah, on a specific matter, they would study the matter in the light of their individual judgments and of what they perceived about suitability and appropriateness pertaining to their individual thinking and accordingly preferred one stand-point to another. They would then deliver their verdict in accordance with their conjectures and preferences. To this they gave the name Istihsān or

Ijtihad.

 

It is well known that Abu Hanifah was conspicuous in the exercise of this sphere of jurisprudence. It has been reported from his pupil, Muhammad ibn Hasan that Abu

Hanifah used to debate with his colleagues and they would demand justice from him and contradict him until he said, "This is Istihsān ", and then no one contradicted him. A statement reported from him, in that he describes his methodology of deduction, says, "I follow the Book of Allah (the Qur'an), if I find any text in it, otherwise I follow the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah. However if I find no text in the Qur'an or in the Sunnah, I follow the statements of others. Thus if the matter ultimately gets to Sha'bi, Muhammad ibn Hasan or Ibn Sirin, then I am entitled to make Ijtihad just as they did".

 

The basic concept leading to the establishment of this school of thought, and to the adoption of unqualified reason as a fundamental means of proving validity and as a source for the deduction of laws, is the idea prevalent in the ranks of that school. It says, "Al-Bayān al-Shar'i, as represented in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, is insufficient and contains the laws on a limited number of propositions only. It is not enough to lay down the laws of the Shari 'ah on many propositions and problems".

 

The propagation of this idea among the jurists of the masses was aided by their inclination toward the Sunni school of thought (Mazhab), wherein they believed that al-Bayān al-Shar'i is represented only in the Qur'an and the Sunnah transmitted from the Messenger. Since these suffice only for partial needs of deduction, they endeavoured to remedy the situation, and to satisfy the other needs, by extending the use of reason and proclaiming the principle of Ijtihad. However the jurists of the Imamiyah school of thought, because of their religious standpoint, held the opposite view, as they believed that al-Bayān al-Shar'i still continued with the existence of the Imams. Thus they found no moral motive for any illegitimate extension in the sphere of reason.

 

Anyhow the idea of the inadequacy of the Qur'an and the Sunnah to meet the needs of deduction spread, and played a vital role in the intellectual outlook of many of the jurists and in their extremist point of view concerning reason.

 

This idea developed and became more and more serious gradually, as it changed from imputing to al-Bayān al-Shar'i (i.e. the Qur'an and the Sunnah), deficiency, incompleteness and lack of proof for the laws relating to many propositions, and began to impute to the Shari'ah itself, deficiency and inability to deal with the various aspects of life. Thus the question no longer remained one of deficiency in al-Bayān al-Shar'i and in its elucidation, but in the Divine Shari'ah itself. Their proof for this alleged deficiency in the Shari'ah is that it had not laid down any law for many other matters not known to the Muslims. The Shari'ah had set out its laws and proofs through the Qur'an and the Sunnah so that these may be followed and may form a code of life for the ummah (nation). In the minds of the masses the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah, did not include the laws on many propositions and problems. It indicates the deficiency and incompleteness of the Shari'ah and that Allah had promulgated only a limited number of laws in Islam. These are the laws described in the Qur'an and the Sunnah. As for legislation in other spheres, He left to man, or to the jurists especially, to devise laws on the basis of Ijtihad and deduction, on the condition that none of the latter laws will contradict any of the limited laws of the Shari'ah laid down in the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Messenger.

 

We have seen that this extremist tendency regarding reason was the result of the propagation of the concept of imperfection (in the Qur'an and the Sunnah) and the connotations thereof. When this idea of imperfection imputed to al-Bayān al-Shar'i developed to become imperfection imputed to the Shari'ah itself, this development was reflected in the field of Sunni thinking. This resulted in the doctrine of Taswib (Imputing correctness) in which that extremist tendency regarding reason reached its utmost limit. To elucidate this point it is necessary to explain the doctrine of Taswib.

 

THE DOCTRINE OF TASWIB (IMPUTING CORRECTNESS)

After the jurists of the school of thought of Rā'y and Ijtihad had come to regard it as lawful for them to follow probabilities, conjectures and preferences in accordance with the extremist tendency regarding reason, naturally differences arose in the laws that they derived through Ijtihad. This was due to the differences in their views, in their ways of thinking and in the kind of preferences to which they attached importance. Thus, one jurist considers that in a certain case prohibition would be preferable because that act involves harm and injury, while another feels that permissiveness would be preferable since it involves expansion of the freedom of the servants of Allah and so on. At this juncture the following point arose: What is the position of the Mujtahids who differ in arriving at a correct view in a specific case? Is it to be taken that they are all correct as long as each of them had given judgment according to his individual Ijtihad? Or should it be considered that only one of them is correct while the others are all in error?

 

The view spread among the ranks of the school propounding Ra'y and Ijtihad that all the differing Mujtahids are correct because Allah has given no confirmed general law in the fields where Ijtihad is necessary, i.e., in which the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah are not adequate. Thus the pronouncement of the law is related to the estimation of the Mujtahid and what his views and preferences lead to. This is the doctrine of Taswib or imputing correctness.

 

In this light we can clearly elucidate what we have mentioned above. The doctrine of Taswib reflects the development of the idea of deficiency and its transformation into imputing deficiency and incompleteness to the Shari'ah directly. It allowed these jurists to deny the existence of a definite law of the Shari'ah in the fields dealt with by Ijtihad and to consider all the differing Mujtahids as correct.

 

Thus we come to know that the idea of deficiency in al-Bayān al-Shar'i led to this extremist tendency regarding reason, which acted as a substitute to fill the alleged deficiency. As this idea of deficiency developed into the imputation of deficiency and incompleteness in the Shari'ah itself, the doctrine of Taswib was brought about by that extremist tendency regarding reason.

 

Now this development in the concept of deficiency, which led to the imputation of deficiency to the Shari'ah and in believing all the differing Mujtahids to be correct, brought about a great change in the understanding of "Reason" and "Ijtihad", as envisaged by the exponents of this extremist tendency regarding reason. So far we have been discussing reason and intellectual discernment as a means of proving validity, i.e. of revealing the laws of the Shari'ah just as the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah reveal such laws. However this concept of deficiency in the Shari'ah, on the basis of which rested the doctrine of Taswib, transformed the task of the jurist in the spheres of Ijtihad into one of legislation and .nor of discovering the law. Thus "Reason" in its comprehensive meaning and "Ijtihad" as used by this extremist tendency regarding reason, were not considered on the basis of the concept of deficiency in the Shari'ah as means of discovering the laws of the Shari'ah, because there was no definite law of the Shari'ah to be discovered by Ijtihad within its scope. Instead, reason and Ijtihad were the bases of the formulation of new laws by the Mujtahid, in accordance with his individual judgment. In this way, Ijtihad became transformed on the basis of the doctrine of Taswib, into a, source of legislation, and the jurist became one who legislates in the fields dealing with Ijtihad, and who, discovers the law in the fields pertaining to the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

 

We do not wish tat his juncture to study the doctrine of Taswib and criticize fit. Our only aim is to show the gravity of this extremist tendency regarding reason, and the importance of the struggle waged by the, school of thought of the Ahlal Bayt against it. It was not merely a struggle against a tendency in 'Ilmul Usul, in reality it was a struggle to defend the Shari'ah to uphold its completeness and perfection and to demonstrate that it deals with all the different aspects of life.  Then the tradition were transmitted from the Imams of the Ahlal Bayt during the period of that struggle, stressing that the Shari'ah includes all laws and systematization that humanity stands in need of, in all walks of life. These traditions also emphasized that adequate al-Bayān al-Shar'i is found for everyone about those laws in the Holy Qur'an, the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet and the statements of the Imams.

 

Here we mention a few of those traditions taken from Usulu'l Kafi:

 

1. It is reported from Imam Sadiq (a): "Allah has revealed in the Qur'an the clear exposition of all things, such that He has not left out anything which His servants may stand in need of; hence no one can say, 'If this had been revealed in the Qur'an ...' because Allah has so revealed that in it."

 

2. It is also reported from him, "There is nothing which is not included in the text of the Qur'an or the Sunnah".

 

3. It is reported that Imam Musa Ibn Ja'far (a) was once asked, "Is everything contained in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, or do you add anything to it?" He replied, "Everything is contained in the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Messenger".

 

4. In a tradition Imam Sadiq (a), is reported to have described "Jame'ā" which sums up the laws of the Shari'ah. He said, "In it (i.e., the Shari'ah) is contained every lawful and unlawful thing and everything that mankind stands in need of, even the penalty for causing injury by scratching".

 

CONTRARY REACTIONS IN SUNNI THEOLOGY

The waging of this violent struggle by the school of thought of the Ahlal Bayt against the extremist tendency regarding reason does not mean that this tendency was generally acceptable in the sphere of Sunni theology, and that the struggle against it was waged specially in the Jurisprudence of the Imamiyah school of thought. On the contrary this extremist tendency regarding reason met with opposition from some Sunni circles also. There were reactions against it in many fields of thought as well.

 

In the field of Fiqh the activity of refutation was represented by the establishment of the Zāhiri school of thought by Daud ibn Ali ibn Khalf Isfahani during the middle of the third century. This school called for following the literal meanings of the Qur'an and the Sunnah and for remaining confined to al-Bayān al-Shar'i. It also condemned taking recourse to reason.

 

This act of refutation was reflected by the sphere of 'Aqā'id (beliefs) and Kalām (scholastic theology) as represented by the Ash'arite school of thought, which discarded reason and claimed that it lacked the power to issue laws even in the field of' Aqā'id. It had been commonly accepted by the ulema that the obligation of coming to know Allah and the Shari'ah is not a law of the Shari'ah but a law based on reason. This is because the laws of the Shari'ah have no power of motivation and influence in the life of man except after he knows his Lord and His Shari'ah. Thus it is essential that the motivating force for knowing Allah and His Shari'ah must be of a different nature vis-à-vis the laws of the Shari'ah, i.e. it should be of the kind of law which is based oh reason. My contention is that while this had been generally accepted by the Mutakallimin (theologians), Ash'ari opposed this and discarded reason for issuing law in any capacity. He stressed that the obligation to come to know Allah is a law of the Shari'ah similar to the obligation to fast or to offer prayers.

 

This act of refutation extended to the sphere of ethics, which at that time formed a part of 'Ilmul Kalām (scholastic theology). The followers of the Ash'arite school of thought denied that reason had the power to distinguish good actions from evil ones even in the most obvious cases. Thus reason cannot distinguish between injustice and justice, but the first became evil and the second good owing to al-Bayān al-Shar'i. Had al-Bayān al-Shar'i deemed injustice good and justice evil, then reason would have had no right to object to that.

 

These reactions did not consist of less shame and danger than the extremist tendency regarding reason itself.  This is because they set out to pass judgment against reason entirely and absolutely, and to strip it of many of its capabilities. Also they set out to stop intellectual development and growth in Islamic thought, because of their complete devotion to the texts of the Almighty Law giver and their zeal to safeguard the Qur'an and the Sunnah. These reactions thus differed fundamentally from the stand-point of the school of thought of the Ahlal Bayt, as the latter, side by side whi1e struggling against the extremist tendency regarding reason, emphasized the importance of reason and the necessity of relying on it within permissible limits and of utilizing it within those limits as a fundamental means of proving validity, in addition to al-Bayān al-Shar'i. The following is the text transmitted from the Ahlal Bayt: "Allah has two authorities over mankind the external and the internal. The external authority consists of the Messengers, the Prophets and the Imams, while the internal is the intellect (of reason)".

 

This text clearly reiterates the establishment of reason as a fundamental instrument for proving validity, in addition to al-Bayān al-Shar'i.

 

Thus the school of thought of the Ahlal Bayt combined defending the Shari'ah from the concept of deficiency, while defending reason from the attack of those who are impervious to progress.

 

We shall return to this topic in a comprehensive and academic manner during the forthcoming discussions.

 

THE STRUGGLE IN DEFENCE OF REASON

 

As regards the extremist tendency renouncing and condemning reason, found within the sphere of Imami thinking, it came to be represented by a group of our 'u1ema who took the name "al-Akhbariyin wal Muhaddithih" (the scholars of the traditions). They opposed the role of reason in different fields and' remained content with al-Bayān al Shar'i alone. This is because reason is prone to error and the history of intellectual thought is full of its errors and mistakes, Thus reason is not fit to be used as an instrument for proving validity in any of the fields of religion.

 

These Akhbāris are the very group that had launched an attack on Ijtihad, as referred to in the previous chapter. The history of this tendency had its origin in the beginning of the eleventh century A.H. It was proclaimed by al-Mirza Muhammad Amin Istirābādi, (d. 1023 A.H:) who was at that time living in Medina. He wrote a book called "al-Fawa'id al Madaniyyah" in which he crystallized this tendency, brought forth proofs and arguments for that and made it into a separate school of thought.

 

In his book Istirābadi emphasized that the branches of human knowledge are of two kinds -- one in which the propositions are derived from sense-experience and the other in which sense-experience is not the basis, nor can the conclusions be verified by it. The author, Muhaddith Istirābādi was of the view that mathematics falls in the first category as it derives its fundamental principles, as he claimed, from sense-experience. As for the second category it is represented by metaphysics that studies prepositions far removed from the reach and limits of sense-experience. Its propositions include the nonmaterial nature of the soul and its continued existence after the body is buried and mortality of the universe.

 

According to the belief of Muhaddith Istirābādi, the first category of the branches of human knowledge alone deserves full confidence as it relies on sense-experience.

Mathematics, for example, relies, in the final analysis on propositions within the reach of sense-experience, similar to 2+2 = 4. As regards the second category it has no value;

and no confidence in reason is possible regarding the conclusions it reaches in this category, because here reason is far removed from sense-experience.

 

In this way Istirābādi propounded his analysis of knowledge by making sense-experience a fundamental standard for distinguishing the value of knowledge and the scope of the possibility of reliance on it.

 

In this light we see clearly that this tendency regarding sense-experience in the view of Muhaddith Istirābādi inclines towards the school of thought of sensationalism in the theory of knowledge, which states that sense-experience is the basis of knowledge. Therefore we can term the movement of the Akhbāris in Islamic thought as one of the

means in which the tendency regarding sense-experience infiltrated into our intellectual heritage.

 

The Akhbāris, whatever they represented concerning sense-experience, preceded the philosophical trend of sensationalism that was propounded by John Locke (d. 1704 A.D.) and David Hume (d. 1776 A.D.). The death of Istirābādi preceded Locke's death by about a hundred years. We can call the former a contemporary of Francis Bacon (d. 1626 A.D.), who had paved the way for the trend of sensationalism in European philosophy.

 

In any case there is a remarkable intellectual unison between the intellectual movement of the Akhbāris and the schools of sensationalism and experimentalism in European philosophy. All of them made a severe attack on reason and nullified the value of all its conclusions that were not derived from sense-experience.

 

The movement of Muhaddith Istirābādi against knowledge arrived at by reason divorced from sense-experience, reached the same conclusions as were recorded by the philosophies of sensationalism in the history of European thought, as it found itself ultimately, owing to its erroneous outlook, opposed to every proof arrived at by reason, which the believers use to prove the existence of Allah. This is because all these proofs are included in the sphere of knowledge arrived at by reason divorced from sense-experience.

 

Thus we find, for instance, a Muhaddith like Sayyid Ni'matullah al-Jazā'iri openly challenging these proofs in accordance with his Akhbāri outlook (i.e. of the school of

the Akhbāris). This has been transmitted by the jurist Shaykh Yusuf Bahrāni in his book "al-Durar al-Najafiyyah". However that did not lead the Akhbāri outlook to apostasy

as it led the European philosophies of sensationalism. This is due to the difference in circumstances that helped the growth and development of both of them. The theory of

knowledge of the trend of sensationalism and experimentalism were developed at the dawn of the Renaissance owing to the movement of experimentation and the accentuation of its importance. It thus had the susceptibility of rejecting all knowledge derived from reason divorced from sense-experience.

 

However, the movement of the Akhbāris possessed religious motives. It had discarded reason on account of the Shari'ah, not on account of experimentation. Thus it was not possible for its opposition to reason to lead to a denial and rejection of the Shari'ah and of religion.

 

Thus the movement of the Akhbāris suffered from internal self-contradiction, in the view of many of its critics, because, on the one hand, it condemned reason in order to clear the way for al-Bayān al-Shar'i to legislate and promulgate Fiqh, while, on the other hand it continued to depend on reason to prove the validity of its religious tenets. This is because the proofs of the existence of the Creator and of the validity of Islam are not possible through al-Bayān al-Shar'i, but have to be grasped through reason.

The history of 'Ilmul Usul

'Ilmul Usul developed in the lap of 'Ilmul Fiqh just as the latter developed in the lap of 'Ilmul Hadith (the science of traditions) as a result of the various stages through which 'Ilmush Shari'ah passed.

 

By 'Ilmush Shari'ah we mean the science that endeavors to come to know the laws which Islam has brought from Allah the Most High. The beginning of this science in

Islam is represented by the campaign of a large number of narrators to preserve and collect the traditions (al-Ahādith) that appear in the laws of the Shari'ah. Thus in the first stage 'Ilmush Shari'ah was at the level of 'Ilmul Hadith. At that time the basic task seems to have been confined to collecting the traditions and preserving their texts. However as for the method of understanding the laws embodied in those texts and traditions, it was not so important at that stage, because it then consisted of nothing more than the simple method by which people understood the words of each other in their everyday conversation. Gradually the method of understanding the laws of the Shari'ah from the texts became more and more complex, until the derivation of laws from their legal sources became abstruse demanding profound and comprehensive knowledge. Increasing and exhaustive efforts were made to acquire that profundity which the understanding of the laws of the Shari'ah from the texts and their derivation from their sources demanded. Thus the seedlings of academic legal thought developed and 'Ilmul Fiqh was born. Then 'Ilmul Shari'ah ascended from the level of 'Ilmul Hadith (science of traditions) to that of deduction and of Istidlāl (setting out proofs and reasoned arguments) which is abstruse.

 

During that growth and development of 'Ilmul fiqh and of legal thinking and the embarkation of the scholars of the Shari'ah upon carrying out the process of deduction

and understanding the laws of the Shari'ah with the degree of profundity and depth demanded by the situation, the common threads (the common elements) of the process of

deduction began to appear and to reveal themselves. This was how the birth of 'Ilmul Usul took place and how the legal thinking of the outlook of 'Ilmul Usul was adopted.

Hence we can say that the science of the principles of jurisprudence was born in the lap of 'Ilmul Fiqh. Thus, while previously' those carrying out the tasks of Fiqh were using the common elements in the process of deduction without completely grasping their nature and limitation and the significance of their role in it -the entrance of the trend of 'Ilmul Usul onto the stage of the thinking of 'Ilmul Fiqh, they began to pay attention to these common elements and to study their limitations.

 

We do not doubt that the seeds of the thinking of 'Ilmul Usul were to be found with the jurists among the companions of the Imams since the days of the Sadiqain (Imam Muhammad Baqir and Imam Ja'far Sadiq) at the level of their legal thinking. Historical testimony to that is contained (among other things) in the books of Ahādith (traditions) about the questions concerning some of the common elements in the process of deduction posed by a number of narrators to Imam Sadiq and other Imams and the answers received from them.[4] Those questions reveal the existence of the seeds of the thinking of 'Ilmul Usul among them and their tendency to establish general laws and to delineate the common elements. This view is strengthened by the fact that some pf the companions of the Imams like Hisham bin Hakam wrote booklets on some of the problems of 'Ilmul Usul. Hisham wrote a book on 'Terms'.

 

However, in spite of that, the concept of common elements and the significance of their role in the process of deduction were not sufficient clear and propound in the beginning. The elucidation of these characteristics and their increase in comprehensiveness took place gradually during the expansion of the tasks of 'Ilmul Fiqh and the development of the processes of deduction. But the study of these common elements did not become a separate study, independent of the researches of 'Ilmul Fiqh, until a long time had elapsed after the birth of the first seeds of the thinking of 'Ilmul Usul. Thus the study of 'Ilmul Usul remained for a long time mixed with the researches of 'Ilmul Fiqh and not independent of it. The thinking of  'Ilmul Usul in the meanwhile intensified its role with, increasing clarity until it reached the degree which enabled it to become independent of 'Ilmul Fiqh.

 

It seems that up to the time 'Ilmul Usul reached the level which qualified it for independence, it continued to waver between 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usulud Din (science

of theology). Thus sometimes these researches were mixed with the researches of

Usulud Din and Kalām (scholastic theology) as Sayyid Murtaza has indicated in his book on 'Ilmul Usul called al-Zari'ah in which he says, "I have tome across one who has devoted a book to Usulul Fiqh and its Styles and overstepped and exceeded its bounds extensively, and even though he was right in the detailed presentation of its meaning, principles and forms, yet he strayed away from Usulul Fiqh and its methods and overstepped and exceeded its bounds extensively. Thus, he discussed the limits of knowledge and speculation; how the theory of knowledge was formulated; the necessity of effect from cause, etc. which are exclusively the method of discussions belonging solely to Usulud Din and not Usulul Fiqh".

 

Now we find that the independence of 'Ilmul Usul as the distinct science of the common elements in the process of deduction to derive the laws of the Shari'ah, and its separation from all other religious sciences from Fiqh to Kalām was not accomplished until after the

concept of the common elements in the process of deduction and the necessity of formulating a general system for them had become clearer. This was the reason which

helped in distinguishing between the nature of the studies of 'Ilmul Usul and the studies of 'Ilmul Fiqh and Kalām, and led consequently to the setting up of a separate science called 'Ilmul Usulil Fiqh or 'Ilmul Usul.

 

In spite of the fact that 'Ilmul Usul was able to gain complete independence from 'Ilmul Kalām (the science of theology, there remained in it some conceptual residue, the history of which goes back to the time when the two sciences ('Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Kalām) were mixed. This residue continued to be a source of anguish. In that residue was the concept that the narrations termed Akhbār Āhād (single reports) cannot be used as proofs in 'Ilmul Usul, as every proof about it has to be definite and decisive. The source of this concept is 'Ilmul Kalam, because in this science the scholars had laid down that Usulud Din (the basic principles of Islam) require definite and decisive proofs. Thus we cannot prove the Attributes of Allah or the life Hereafter with Akhbār Āhād. The mixture of

'Ilmul Usulud Din and 'Ilmul Usul fiqh and their sharing the word Usul led to the generalization of that concept to apply to 'Ilmul Usul al-Fiqh also. Thus we see that the

books on 'Ilmul Usul (i.e. 'Ilmul Usulil Fiqh) up to the time of Muhaqqiq Hilli in the seventh century A.H. continued to criticize proving of the validity of the common

elements in the process of deduction with Akhbār Āhād as a departure from the above concept.

 

We find in the book al-Zari'ah concerning the mingling of Usulul Fiqh and Usulud Din some relatively abstruse and limited conceptions of the common elements in the process of deduction. The author wrote, "You must know that the discussions of Usulu'l Fiqh are in reality discussions about the proofs of Fiqh. In view of what we have described, it is not necessary that the proofs, the methods of arriving at the laws and the existing branches of Fiqh in the books of the jurists, be of the nature of Usul (principles), because the discussions on Usulul Fiqh are discussions on the nature of the proofs by which these

Usul establish laws, but not in a detailed manner. The proofs of the jurists are of the same pattern. But their discussions on the sum total are different from those in detail".

 

This quotation taken from one of the earliest sources of 'Ilmul Usul in the Shari'ah heritage clearly includes the concept of the common elements in the process of deduction, calling them "The proofs of Fiqh (Adillatul Fiqh) in general". It distinguishes between the studies of 'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh on the basis of the distinction between the proofs of the sum total and the proofs of the details, i.e. between the common elements and the particular elements in our terminology. This means that the concepts of common elements had developed to a great degree by that time. The same concepts found afterwards in the writings of Shaykh Tusi, Ibn Zuhrah, Muhaqqiq Hilli and others. They all knew 'Ilmul Usul as "the science of the proofs of Fiqh in general". Thus they endeavored to express by this the concept of common elements.

 

In Kitab al-Iddah, Shaykh Tusi says, "Usulul Fiqh" are the proofs of Fiqh. Thus when we discuss these proofs, we discuss in general the obligations, recommendations, permissibility, etc. from different categories. It is not necessary that these proofs should lead to the branches of Fiqh, as the former are proofs on the delineation of the problems and the discussions about the sum total is different from the discussion in detail".

 

Here the terms "the sum-total" and "the details" are used to denote the common and the particular elements, respectively.

 

From the above we come to the conclusion that the emergence of 'Ilmul Usul and the intellectual awakening to the common elements in the process of deduction depended on both the development of this process of deduction to a degree of abstruseness and extensiveness and the flourishing and increase in complexity of the thinking of 'Ilmul Fiqh. Thus it was no coincidence that the emergence of 'Ilmul Usul historically followed the appearance of 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Hadith. And that 'Ilmul Usul should develop in the lap of 'Ilmul Fiqh after legal thinking had grown and developed to the extent which permitted the observation of the common elements and their study through the methods of academic research, is again no coincidence. Hence, it was but natural that the concept of common elements should develop gradually and become more abstruse, with the passage of time, until it gained its distinct form and correct limits and was separated from the studies of both 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usulid Din.

 

THE HISTORICAL NECESSITY FOR 'ILMUL USUL

 

The delay in the emergence of 'Ilmul Usul historically, after the appearance of 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Hadith, was not due only to the correlation between the outlook of 'Ilmul Usul and the relatively prior levels of legal thinking. There is also another reason that is of great significance in this regard. It is that 'Ilmul Usul was not found in the capacity of a kind of intellectual luxury, but was the expression of the dire need for the process of

deduction for which 'Ilmul Usul was required to supply the indispensable common elements. This means that the need for 'Ilmul Usul originated from the need of the process of deduction for the common elements which are studied and delineated in this science. This need of the process of deduction for the common elements in reality is not an absolute necessity but arose as a historical need.

 

In other words it was a necessity which was found and which became more severe after jurisprudence had become far removed from the period of the promulgation of the texts, This need was not found to that degree in the jurisprudence contemporaneous with the period of the promulgation of those texts.

 

To understand this concept clearly, suppose that you were living in the time of the Holy Prophet, in close proximity to him and used to hear the laws directly from him and to understand the texts given out by him owing to their clarity of language and your direct approach to contexts and their expressions. Hence, in such a case would you have been in need, in order to understand the laws of the Shari'ah, for taking recourse to a common

element of 'Ilmul Usul like the validity of al-Khabar as a proof, bearing in mind that you either heard the texts directly from the Holy Prophet or they were transmitted to you by persons whom you knew directly and in whose truthfulness you had the least doubt? Or would you have been taken recourse to a common element of 'Ilmul Usul like the validity of al-Zuhur al-'Urfi as a proof, when you were directly and clearly perceiving (with the aid of your sense of hearing) the meaning of the texts issued by the Prophet, whose meaning was not at all doubtful most of the times owing to your knowledge of all the circumstances and contexts of those texts? Or would you have required contemplation to formulate laws to explain abstract (muhmal) statements issued by the Prophet when you were in a position to ask him and seek clarification from him instead of harbouring doubts on those laws? This means that as man was nearer to the period of the promulgation of Islamic law and more conversant with the texts, the less was the necessity for his own judgment regarding general laws and common elements. At that time the formulation of the laws of the Shari'ah would have been completed in a simple manner without jurists having to face numerous gaps and to contemplate filling them

through the methodology of the elements of 'Ilmul Usul. However as the jurists became far removed from the age in which the texts were issued, and were forced to rely on

history on the historians, on the narrators and the Muhaddithin (traditionalists) in the matter of the transmission of the texts, they faced many gaps and missing links, forcing them to contemplate formulating laws. We may ask; "Was the transmitted text in reality given: by the Prophet or the Imam or did the narrator lie, or did he make a mistake in transmitting it? What did the infallible one mean by this text? Did he indeed intend the meaning I understand from the text when l read it, or did it contain some other meaning according to the circumstances and contexts in which it was issued and of which we are not aware? What does a jurist do when he is unable to find a text on a specific problem? " In this way man becomes in need of the elements of the validity of al-Khabar, or al-Zuhurul-'Urfi; etc. as proofs, from among the laws of 'Ilmul Usul.

 

This is what we mean by saying that the necessity for 'Ilmul Usul was historical, and connected with the extent of the distance in time of the process of deduction from the age of the promulgation of the Shari'ah and its separation from the circumstances and contexts of the texts of the Shari'ah. It is this separation in time that brings about the gaps and missing links in the process of deduction. It is these gaps that brought about the urgent necessity for 'Ilmul Usul and its laws.

 

In order to fill up those gaps the need for 'Ilmul Usul was perceived by the first pioneers of this science. Sayyid Jalil Hamza ibn 'Ali ibn Zuhrah Husayn Halabi (d. 585 A.H.) wrote in the first chapter of his book al-Ghunyah:  "Since the discussions on the branches of jurisprudence are based on the Usulul Fiqh, it is essential to begin with those Usul and then follow the branches of Fiqh. Any discussion on the branches, of Fiqh, without mastery of the Usul will not be fruitful. However some detractors had objected to it, saying, 'If, concerning the laws of the Shari'ah, you know only a statement of an infallible one, what is the need for 'Ilmul Usul? Your discussions on it seem meaningless and useless".

 

In this text Ibn Zuhrah connects the need for 'Ilmul Usul with the gaps in the process of deduction by referring to the necessity of the Imamiyah school of thought following the statements of the infallible Imam only. This is because as long as they continue following such statements they have no need for 'Ilmul Usul. This is due to the fact that if the derivation of a law is based directly on the statement of the infallible Imam, then it is a simple task, containing no gaps, which demand contemplation to formulate laws and elements of 'Ilmul Usul to fill them.

 

In a text of Muhaqqiq Sayyid Muhsin A'raji (d" 1227 A.H.) in his book on Fiqh 'Wasa'ilush Shi'ah", we find a complete awareness of the concept of the historical

necessity for 'Ilmul Usul. He spoke about the differences that arose owing to the distance in time from the age of the promulgation of the texts and its being far removed, from it as regards circumstances and contexts. Summing this up, he wrote, "What comparison is there between one favored with nearness in time and one afflicted by being far removed from it, so that they can be termed equals in, riches and poverty? No, there is a world of difference between them. Owing to the length of the period of' separation, the severity of hardships, and the universality of tribulations; what has occurred would have led to a return to the period of Jahiliyah (Age of ignorance), had it not been for Allah and the blessings of His pious servants.

 

Languages have been corrupted, terminologies and usages changed, the contextual circumstances have disappeared, lies have increased, hypocrisy has spread and contradictions between proofs have become serious so much so that one is almost not able to find a law which is universally agreed upon, owing to the allegations of

differences in it. At the same time there is also no one to whom questions may be addressed. Suffice it to say that there is a distinction between the two groups -the contextual circumstances and what is perceived in speaking in detail and in brief. This is different from him who comes across only different narrations and contradictory traditions and needs to apply them to the Qur'an and the known Sunnah: For such an individual preparation, readiness and training in that field are necessary so that he may not make mistakes, because he has to select from the conflicting views".

 

In the light of this we come to know that the subsequent emergence of 'Ilmul Usul historically was not only the consequence of its correlation with the development of legal thinking and the growth of deduction, it was also the consequence of the nature of the necessity for 'Ilmul Usul. This necessity was historical and was found and developed in direct proportion to the distance in time from the period of the promulgation of the texts.

 

WORKS ON 'ILMUL USUL

In the light of the preceding, which confirms that the need for 'Ilmul Usul was historical, we are able to explain the separation in time between the heyday of 'Ilmul Usul in the sphere of Sunni legal thinking and its heyday in the sphere of our Imami legal thinking. History indicates that this branch of knowledge relatively thrived and flourished in the sphere of Sunni Jurisprudence before it did so in our Imami Jurisprudence. It is said that 'Ilmul Usul in Sunni theology entered the phase of literary works in the closing stages of the second century (A.H.) when works in that field were written by al-Shāfi'i (d. 189 A.H.) and Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Shaybani (d. 189 A.H.), while we don't find any extensive work on that subject in Shi'ah theology until just after the short occultation i.e.

at the beginning of the fourth century (A.H.). However some essays on various topics of 'Ilmul Usul by companions of the Imams do exist.

 

We have come to know that the development in the thinking of 'Ilmul Usul was the result of the need for principles in the sphere of deduction, and that this need was historical. This need increased and became more severe as the distance in time from the age of the promulgation of the texts increased. Therefore it was only natural that this separation in time be found earlier in Sunni theology and that Sunni thinking on 'Ilmul Usul should grow and expand before Shi'ah thinking, because Sunni theology claims that the age of the promulgation of texts ended with the death of the Holy Prophet. Thus when Sunni legal thinking crossed the second century, it had become separated from the age of the promulgation of texts by a long period of time which had engendered gaps and missing links in the process of deduction. Thus there was the pressing need for the formulation of general laws of 'Ilmul Usul to cover up the gaps and missing links. As regards the Imamis, however, they were at the time still living in the age of the promulgation of texts of the Shari'ah. This was due to the presence of the Imam as an extension of the stay of the Holy Prophet. Thus the difficulties faced by the 1mami jurists in making deduction were very few; hence, the field did not permit severe necessity for formulating 'Ilmul Usul.

 

Thus, we find that for the Imamis, the age of the promulgation of texts ended with the beginning of the occultation or with the end of the minor occultation more specifically, their thinking on 'Ilmul Usul only then emerged and they began to study the common elements in the process of deduction. A number of distinguished pioneers from among our jurists established themselves as the leaders in this field, such as Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Aqil and Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Junayd Askāfi in the fourth century (A.H.).

 

'Ilmul Usul then quickly entered the stage of literary works. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn, No'mān known as Shaykh Mufid (d. 413 A.H.) wrote a treatise on 'Ilmul Usul in which he continued the line of thinking followed by lbn Abi Aqil and Ibn Junayd, his predecessors. He criticized both of them for a number of their views. After him came his pupil Sayyid Murtaza (d. 436 A.H.) and he developed this line of thinking on 'Ilmul Usul. On this subject he produced a relatively comprehensive work, which he called al-Zari'ah. In its preface Sayyid Murtaza mentioned that this work was unique in this sphere owing to the trends of 'Ilmul Usul in it, which fully distinguished the Imamis from others. However Sayyid Murtaza was not the only one among the pupil of Shaykh Mufid to have developed this new science and done work in this branch. A number of other students of Shaykh Mufid also wrote on 'Ilmul Usul. Among them was Salār ibn Abdul Aziz Daylami (d. 436 A.H.) who wrote "al-Taqrib fi Usulil Fiqh".

 

Also among them was the jurist and Mujaddid Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan Tusi (d. 460 A.H.) who was recognized as the leader of the jurists after his two predecessors,

Shaykh Mufid and Sayyid Murtaza. He wrote a book on Ilmu'l Usul called "al-Iddah fil Usul". Through his efforts 'Ilmul Usul entered a new phase of intellectual maturity, just as with him jurisprudence also entered a higher level of expansion and extension.

 

In addition to research and studies in 'Ilmul Usul that age also witnessed an extensive effort to collect the traditions transmitted from the Imams of the Holy Prophet's progeny and to assimilate smaller collections of traditions into large and comprehensive ones. And before that age had come to an end, Imami intellectual thinking was enriched by the four comprehensive sources of traditions. These are "al-Kafi" by ThiqatuI Islam Muhammad ibn Ya'qub Kulayni (d. 329 A.H.); "Man la Yahzaruhul Faqih" by Shaykh Saduq Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (d. 381 A.H.); "al-Tahzib" by Shaykh Tusi (which he wrote in the lifetime of Shaykh Mufid) and also "al-Istibsār" by Shaykh Tusi. These books are called in the terminology of the Imamis "al-Kutub al-Arba'ah (The Four Books).

 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THEORY AND OF ITS APPLICATION BY SHAYKH TUSI

 

Shaykh Tusi's work on 'Ilmul Usul was not merely as a continuation of the same line of thinking, but it may be considered as a new advancement altogether like a separate part of the extensive development of the whole of legal and intellectual thinking. This pioneering jurist was successfully able to accomplish it. The book 'al-lddah' was an expression of this development on the subject of 'Ilmul Usul, whereas the book "al-Mabsut fil Fiqh" was an expression of the great development in the studies of 'Ilmul fiqh at the level of application, in a manner parallel to the development in 'Ilmul Usul at the level of theory.

 

As regards the qualitative distinctions between the tendencies in the sphere of knowledge resulting from this new development and the preceding tendencies, we can consider Shaykh Tusi as the separating boundary between the two periods in the history of knowledge -the preparatory era and the era of maturity in knowledge. This pioneering scholar brought the preparatory era to close, and initiated that age of knowledge in which 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usul became sciences with their own specific intellectual outlooks, their own art, and their own abstruseness.

 

In this connection perhaps the best pf all possible methods to elucidate the tremendous development which knowledge underwent at the hands of Shaykh Tusi would be to examine two statements written by him- one in the Introduction to his book "al-Iddah" and the other in the Introduction to his book 'al-Mabsut'.

 

He wrote in the introduction of al-Iddah: " You (may Allah grant you support) have asked for a brief statement on 'Ilmul Fiqh encompassing briefly and concisely all chapters in, accordance with the views of our school of thought and our principles. Whoever has written on this subject has done so along the lines dictated by his own principles (Usul) But none of our companions known to have written on this subjects except Shaykh Abu Abdillah in "al-Mukhtasar", his book on Usulul Fiqh.

 

However he did not write with complete accuracy because certain irregularities have been transmitted from him and they necessitate rectification and revision. Sayyid Murtaza in most of his discourses had pointed out those irregularities. However, he has not written anything on this subject to which recourse may be taken or which can act as a central pillar to be relied on. Thus you may say, "It is essential to attach the greatest importance to this branch of knowledge because the whole of the Shari'ah is based on it and the knowledge of any aspect thereof is not complete without mastering the principles (of Usul Fiqh). And whoever does not master the principles of Usulul Fiqh can be a storyteller and a layman but not a scholar".

 

This text of Shaykh Tusi reflects the extent of the importance of the development of Usulu'l Fiqh which he carried out in his book "al-Iddah" and his important role in this field and the importance of what he has derived through research on the formulation of the theories of Usulu'l fiqh within the general religious framework of the Imami school of thought.

 

This text also re-affirms that Shaykh Mufid was in the forefront of the field of writings on 'Ilmul Usul in the sphere of Imami theology. 1t also shows that Shaykh Tusi wrote "al-Iddah" or at least began writing it during the lifetime of Sayyid Murtaza, as he has prayed in it for the latter's long life. Perhaps, he did not at that time know of the existence of Sayyid Murtaza's book "al-Zari'ah " as he negated the existence of any book on 'Ilmul Usul by the latter. This means that Shaykh Tusi began his book before Sayyid Murtaza wrote "al-Zhari'ah" or that "al-Zhari'ah" had already been written but had not been known or publicized, so that Sayyid Murtaza 's contemporary (Shaykh Tusi) did not know of it when he began writing "al-Iddah".

 

In his great work on jurisprudence, "al-Mubsut." Shaykh Tusi wrote, "I continue to hear a  group of jurists and those associated with the study of jurisprudence who are opposing us, belittling the jurisprudence of our Imami companions and saying, regarding the paucity of branches (Furu ') of jurisprudence and of legal problems.  They are the exponents of "insertion" and "competition". Verily those who deny Qiyās (analogy) and ljtihad have no

means of solving many of the legal problems and of deriving the branches from the underlying principles (Usul), since the major part of these are based on the two principles of Qiyās and Ijtihad. This statement of theirs reflects ignorance regarding out school of thought and their lack of reflection on our principles. Had these critics only examined our traditions and our jurisprudence, they would have come to know that most of the legal problems mentioned by them are to be found in our traditions based on the authority of the Imams, whose statements, as regards proof, follow the course of those of the Holy Prophet, to specify, generalize, clarify or comment on them. And as for the majority of problems relating to the branches (Furu') of jurisprudence with which their books are replete, there is no branch which is hot dealt with in our principles, and is not found in our school of thought. It is not dealt with on the basis of Qiyās. We follow the principle that to act according to obligatory knowledge is obligatory.

 

"Acquiring this knowledge is facilitated because it is based on the underlying principle (al-Asl) and on meeting one's obligations etc. In addition, most of the branches of

jurisprudence have their origin in the texts transmitted from our companions. However their number has multiplied at the hands of the jurists because of their approach to handle the legal problems, some based on others and their inter-relationships and abstruseness so much so that many of the clear problems have become abstruse owing to this kind of handling even if the problems themselves are familiar and clear.

 

"For a long time I had a keen desire to write a book covering that field. My desire was aroused but different circumstances interrupted me and other preoccupations kept me busy. Also the lack of desire on the part of this group for such a book and their lack of concern for it, was a setback for my intention. They had written down the traditions and their writings consisted of exact definite words, so much so that if a problem was presented in different words or put forward in a manner other than the usual, they became astonished and were unable to understand it".

 

"Previously I had written the book "al-Nihayah" in which I had discussed all that was reported by our companions in their writings and all the problems they had dealt with together with their differences thereon. These I arranged in the order of the problems of Fiqh and I collected their views and arranged the books in the given order for reasons explained there. Hence, I did not undertake the branches of the problems nor writing the conclusions of different chapters nor arranging the problems, nor commenting on them, nor reconciling to their differing views. Instead I present all or most of them in the form of quotations, so that they may not have an aversion to that. At the end I wrote brief sentences of conclusion on Ibadāt (acts of devotional worship) in which I preferred brevity and conciseness. I also wrote concluding sentences on the chapters related to Ibadāt (prayers)".

 

In "an-Nihayah" I promised to write a book especially on the branches of jurisprudence, which, taken, in conjunction with the former, would be complete and sufficient for all intents and purposes. Then I realized that would be incomplete, and to understand it would be difficult for the reader because a branch is understood only when viewed in

conjunction with its underlying principle. Thus, I thought it only just that I should write a book encompassing all the works on jurisprudence written so far numbering about thirty and I that I should mention each of them, to the extent that its summarization is possible. These are the works dealing solely with Fiqh and not with invocations or etiquette. I also felt that I should assign chapters, divide the legal problems, reconcile the differing views and treat the matter as exhaustively as possible also that I should deal with most of the branches of jurisprudence mentioned by our opponents, and state the view of our school of thought dictated by our basic principles, after mentioning the underlying principle of every problem.

 

This book, if Allah grants me the Grace to complete it, will be a work unmatched both among the works of our companions as well as among those of our opponents. This is because I have not come to know so far of any single work by any jurist, which deals with .the underlying principles as well as with the branches of jurisprudence exhaustively according to our school of thought. On the contrary their books, in spite of being numerous, do not encompass the underlying principles as well as the branches of jurisprudence in a single work. As for our companions they have no work on this topic worthy of reference; they give only summaries".

 

The above quotation expresses the historical circumstances that occurred in the initial stages of the development of legal thinking, through which science of Islamic law expanded and developed in the Imami school of thought until it resulted in the likes of Shaykh Tusi, one of the illustrious scholars who expanded and extended it to a greater and deeper level.

 

From the above quotation it seems that the legal studies and research that preceded Shaykh Tusi (which he came across and felt anguished thereby) were confined mainly to the review of the traditions and texts. To this, Shaykh Tusi refers as the underlying principles (Usul) of the problems. This review of the data was restricted to the self-same forms that appeared in the original sources of those traditions. Naturally legal research and studies when confined to the underlying principles of the problems, given in a direct manner in the texts, and to the transmitted forms, will be very narrow and restricted with no scope for originality and extension.

 

In the scales of the development of knowledge, transforming legal thinking from its narrow limited scope dealing with the underlying principles of problems to a wider scope, in which the jurist deals with the branches of Fiqh, with details, with the comparison between laws and with the application of general laws, and also examines the laws of different occurrences and hypotheses in the light of the given data in the texts in these scales, the book "al-Mabsut" was a great and successful endeavor.

 

From a study of the texts of Shaykh Tusi, the eminent jurist in "al-Iddah" and in 'al-Mabsut", we are able to derive the following two facts:

 

Firstly, 'Ilmul Usul, in the stage of knowledge, which preceded Shaykh Tusi, was proportional to the level of legal research and studies which, at that time, were confined

to the underlying principles of problems and the immediate data from the texts of the Shari'ah, and it was not possible for 'Ilmul Usul to develop considerably in that period. This is because the limited need for legal research that confined itself within the limits of the immediate data in the texts of the Shari'ah did not help such a development. Thus

naturally, 'Ilmul Usul had to await the expansion and development of legal thinking and its passing through those stages about which Shaykh Tusi felt annoyed and expressed his discontent, Secondly, the development of Ilmul Usul, which Shaykh Tusi presents in his book 'al-Iddah' followed a line parallel to the tremendous development which occurred

in that period in the field of jurisprudence. This historical parallelism between the two developments supports the view which we have previously put forward about the

interaction between the thinking on 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usul, i.e., between the studies in theory and practice in the field of jurisprudence. Thus a jurist, who concerns himself

with the limits of the meaning of a text and the immediate data either in the same words or in synonymous words, and, who lives at a time not far from that of the infallible ones, will not feel a great need for laws, However when he  enters the stage of the branches of that text and the study of details and of putting forward new hypotheses to  derive the laws, through whatsoever means, from the texts; he finds himself in great and urgent need of the common elements and the general laws. The wide horizons of legal thinking then open up before him. We must not, however, conclude from the preceding quotations from Shaykh Tusi that the transformation of legal thinking from the stage of being confined to the underlying principles (Usul) of the problems and its Stagnation on the forms of the traditions to the stage of branches and of application of laws, took place suddenly at his (Shaykh Tusi's) hands without any prior preparation. In fact the development that Shaykh Tusi brought about in legal thinking had its seed sown before him by his two illustrious teachers, Sayyid Murtaza and Shaykh Mufid, and before them by Ibn Abi Aqil and Ibn Junayd as we have alluded to previously. Those seeds had their own importance from the point of view of the developments of knowledge, so much so that Abu Ja'far ibn Ma'd Musawi (who came later than Shaykh Tusi) is reported to have come across the book on jurisprudence by fun Junayd called 'al-Tahzib" and to have remarked that he had not come across any book, more excellent, more eloquent, with better expression or with a more delicate meaning than that. This book deals with the branches of jurisprudence as well as the underlying principles, and shows differences in the problems and cites proofs, both according to the way of the Imamis as well as according to the way of their opponents. This testimony demonstrates the value of the seeds that grew until they bore fruit at the hands of Shaykh Tusi.

 

Then came Shaykh Tusi's book "al-Iddah', which represented the development of the thinking on 'Ilmul Usul as the fruit of those seeds, in compliance with the needs for extension and expansion in the legal research and studies. In this light we come to know that it is an error to say that the book "al-Iddah " severed the relationship between the development of 'Ilmul Fiqh and that of 'Ilmul Usul and established the possibility of .the development of the thinking on 'Ilmul Usul to a considerable extent without thinking on science of jurisprudence. This is because Shaykh Tusi wrote "al-Iddah" in the lifetime of

Sayyid Murtaza and at that time thinking on science of jurisprudence was in its initial stages and did not develop except in the book "al-Mabsut" which the learned Shaykh Tusi in the latter part of his life the reason why making such a statement is an error is that though the book "al-Mabsut" was chronologically younger than "al-lddah", yet the former only embodied the extension and expansion of legal thinking which had begun to develop and branch out at the hands of Ibn Junayd, Sayyid Murtaza, etc,

 

RELATIVE STAND STILL IN KNOWLEDGE

No sooner had the great Mujaddid (reformer) Muhammad ibn Hasan Tusi appeared than the study of 'Ilmul Usul and of applications in the sphere of Fiqh spurted out tremendously and he left behind an enormous heritage in 'Ilmul Usul as represented by "al-lddah" and another enormous heritage in the sphere of applications in Fiqh, embodied in "al-Mabsut", However this enormous heritage remained at a standstill, without any further development, after the demise of the great Mujaddid for a century, both in the fields of 'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh equally.

 

This fact, in spite of the stress of a number of scholars, is the basis for questioning ourselves about it. This is because the revolutionary movement, started by Shaykh Tusi, in the spheres of 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usul, and the great achievements, which he accomplished, should expectedly have been a powerful force for knowledge and should have opened up wide horizons for subsequent scholars to exercise originality and creativity, and for continuing the journey on the track shown by the Shaykh. How is it that they did not associate with the views of the Shaykh and his researches that would naturally serve to urge and motivate towards following the same path?

 

This is the question that deserves an explicit answer. It is possible for us, at this juncture, to indicate a number of reasons that would throw light on the situation.

 

1.  It is a historical fact that Shaykh Tusi migrated to Najaf in 448 A.H. as a result of the disturbances and strife that erupted between the Shi'ahs and Sunnis in Baghdad about 12 years before his death. In Baghdad he had become a centre of learning before his migration. He was very popular among the public as well as among the scholars, so much so that he gained the chair of "al-Kalām wal Ifadah" from the Caliph Qa'im bi Amrillah. The Caliph used to bestow this honor only on eminent and reputable scholars. Shaykh Tusi was not only a teacher, he was also an authority and a religious leader, from whom the Shi'ahs of Baghdad sought help in their various affairs after the death of Sayyid Murtaza in the year 436 A.H. Hence, his migration to Najaf served to free him from many duties and gave him the opportunity to devote himself completely to intellectual pursuits. This helped him to perform his enormous intellectual role which raised him to the status of one of the founders, as alluded to by the Muhaqqiq Shaykh Asadullah Tustari in his book "Maqābisu'l Anwār" in the following words: "Perhaps it

was the Divine Wisdom to allow Shaykh Tusi to free himself for the duties which he alone carried out in laying the foundation of the sciences of the Shari'ah, especially in the sphere of the problems of jurisprudence".

 

In the light of the above, naturally, the years which Shaykh Tusi spent in Najaf had a great influence on his intellectual stature and personality, as represented in his book, "'al-Mabsut". This was the last work on jurisprudence written by him, as mentioned by Ibn Idris in "Bahth ul-Anfal minas Sarā'ir". It was the last work written by him in his life as his biographers mention.

 

In addition to this, we see that Shaykh Tusi, by migration to Najaf, most probably separated himself from his students and his academic circle in Baghdad and began to develop a young circle around him from among his children or from those desirous of pursuing studies on jurisprudence from among the students at the sacred tomb of Imam Ali (a) at Najaf or the residents of nearby towns like Hillah etc. This circle developed gradually in his lifetime and the Mash'hadi element (named after Mash'had 'Alawi) became prominent in it. The Hilli element from which the intellectual currents flowed to Hillah also came into prominence.

 

When we put forward the view that Shaykh Tusi, by his migration, separated himself from his original circle of students and founded a new circle in Najaf we are relying on a number of considerations. First of all, we see that the historians writing about the migration of Shaykh Tusi to Najaf do not at all indicate that his students in Baghdad accompanied him or that they joined him immediately after his migration. Further, when

we examine the list of the Shaykh's students mentioned by his biographers we find that the place of students is not mentioned except in the case of two persons about whom it is clearly mentioned that they studied under Shaykh Tusi at Najaf. They are Husayn ibn Hasan ibn Muzaffar ibn Ali Hamadani and Husayn ibn Hasan ibn Babwayh Qummi and most likely they were the new students of the Shaykh. Regarding Husayn ibn Muzaffar, Shaykh Muntajabuddin has mentioned in the former's biography in "al-Fihrist" that he studied all the Shaykh's writings under him at Ghara. Studying all the Shaykh's writings under him, at Najaf, increases the possibility that Husayn was one of his new students, who joined him after his migration to Najaf, since this student had not studied under the

Shaykh before. The probability of this is further increased by the fact that Husayn's father, Muzaffar also used to attend the lectures of Shaykh Tusi and prior to that, those

of Sayyid Murtaza as Muntajabuddin mentions in al-Fihrist. This increases the probability that the son, Husayn, was from a later group of students than the one in which his father participated as one of the Shaykh's students. About Hasan ibn Husayn Babwayh (Qummi), we know from his biography that he was also a student of Abdul Aziz ibn B'arrāj Tarābulusi and that he narrated traditions from Karachuki and Sihrishti. The latter three were all students of Shaykh Tusi. This means that Hasan who became a

student of the Shaykh in Najaf was one of his later students since the former was also a student of the Shaykh's students.

 

Another fact, which increases the likelihood that the academic circle, which assembled around the Shaykh in Najaf, was wholly new, is the role played in it by his son Hasan, better known as Abu Ali. The latter assumed the leadership of the academic group after the demise of his father, migrated to Najaf, because although his dates of birth and death are not known, it is historically established that he was alive in the year 515 A.H., as is clear from a number of references in the book "Bashāratul Mustafa, viz. that he lived for about seventy years after his father's migration to Najaf. About his education it is stated that he was a student of his father's classes, at the same time as Hasan ibn Husayn Qummi, who, we think, probably belonged to the later circle of students. It is also said that Shaykh Tusi granted the certificate of graduation to Abu Ali in 455 A.H. i.e. fifty years before the latter's death.

 

This fact agrees with the view that he was one of the new students. Thus knowing that Abu Ali succeeded his father in teaching and in intellectual leadership of the academic

circle in Najaf in spite of his being one of the Shaykh's later students (as is most likely), we are able to estimate the intellectual level of that circle. Hence, the likelihood of its being a new formation is apparent.

 

The picture, which becomes clear to us, on the basis of the above is that Shaykh Tusi, by migrating to Najaf became separated from his original circle of students in Baghdad, and that he founded a new circle around him in Najaf. There he was able to find time for study and research, and for furthering the cause of knowledge. If this happens to be the true picture, then we are in a position to explain the phenomenon confronting us. Naturally, the new academic circle, which formed around the Shaykh in Najaf, because of its newness, was not able to rise to the level of creative interaction, with the development that Shaykh Tusi brought about in intellectual thought. As regards the original circle, having its roots in Baghdad, it did not interact with the ideas of the Shaykh because he was carrying on his work, cut off from it. Thus even though his migration to Najaf prepared him for undertaking his great intellectual role, as it afforded him free time, yet

it also cut him off from his original circle of students. Owing to this, the intellectual originality of the Shaykh in the field of Fiqh did not flow from him to that circle, as he was drawing his own conclusions and introducing his original ideas. And there is a great difference between a creative thinker putting forward his original ideas within the sphere of an academic circle and continuously interacting with that circle so that it participates in those original ideas with full consciousness and awareness and a creative thinker working outside the sphere of such a circle and far removed from it.

 

Thus, it was necessary, in order that creative intellectual interaction be effected, that youthful circle which developed around the Shaykh in Najaf should become powerful enough to reach that level of interaction on the intellectual standard.

 

Thus a period of apparent stagnation prevailed until that youthful circle matured to (reach) the required level. Thus the course of knowledge had to wait necessarily for

nearly a hundred years to allow that circle to be mature enough to bear the load of the intellectual heritage of the Shaykh in a manner so as to act meaningfully on his views and then to spread his original creative thinking to Hillah. Meanwhile the old circle in Baghdad withered away and was totally cut off from intellectual creativity and originality of which the youthful circle in Najaf and its branch in Hillah especially, were the natural heirs.

 

2.  A group of scholars attributes that strange intellectual stagnation to the great esteem that Shaykh Tusi enjoyed in the eyes of his students as he was above criticism in their views. They thus made his views and theories into sanctified things not open to objections nor fit for being subjected to a thorough examination. Thus in "Ma'alimuddin", Shaykh Hasan ibn Zaynuddin writes on the authority of his father that most of the jurists who came after Shaykh Tusi used to follow him and completely rely on his authority owing to their great reverence for him and their high opinion about him. It is also reported that Himsi who lived during that period, said, "Strictly speaking the Imamis have no Mufti (jurist) left; they are all narrators".

 

This means that the sentimental reaction to the new and original ideas of the Shaykh, as represented in that attitude of sanctification, prevailed over the intellectual reaction which should have been expressed in the study of propositions and problems which the Shaykh had presented and in the continuity of intellectual development in the field of jurisprudence.

 

The attitude of sanctification reached such an extent in the minds of the Shaykh's contemporaries, that we read of those among them who spoke of the dream of the

Commander of the Faithful in which Imam Ali (a) testified to the correctness of all that Shaykh Tusi had written in his book "an-Nihayah". This clearly shows the extent to which the intellectual and spiritual authority of the Shaykh was implanted in the depths of their minds.

 

However this reason given to explain the intellectual stagnation is interconnected with the first one, since the intellectual esteem, in which a jurist is held, no matter to what extent, is normally not enough to close for others the doors of growth and interaction with the views of that jurist in the sphere of legal thinking. This usually happens only when others are not at that intellectual level which qualifies them for such interaction. In such a case the esteem is transformed into complete faith and blind confidence.

 

3.  The third reason can be deduced from two historical facts. The first is that the growth of thinking in 'Ilmul Fiqh and in 'Ilmul Usul with the Shi'ahs was not separated from the external factors which were aiding the growth and development of academic thinking and research. One of those factors was Sunni thinking because researches in 'Ilmul Usul in the sphere of Sunnism and the development of these researches according to the Sunni school of thought continuously motivated the thinkers among the Imami jurists to study those researches within the framework of the Imami school of thought, and to formulate theories in accordance with Imami views on every problem and difficulty raised by Sunni research and to criticize the solutions put forward by others. Quotations from two

eminent Imami jurists will be enough to establish the role of motivation played by Sunni thinking on 'Ilmul Usul.

 

(a)  Shaykh Tusi in the preface to his book 'al-lddah' says, justifying the step he had taken in writing this book on 'Ilmul Usul, "Whoever has written on this subject has

followed the lines dictated by his own principles (Usul). But none of our companions is known to have written on this subject".

 

(b)  Ibn Zuhrilh in his book, "al-Ghuhyah", has explained the intended objectives of research on 'Ilmul Usul. We also have another objective in discussing Usulul Fiqh apart

from what has already been mentioned. This is to show the incorrectness of many of the views of the schools of thought of our opponents and of many of their ways of reaching correct views. [5] It is not possible for them to correct themselves nor for us to show them their incorrectness using any of the branches of jurisprudence. This is because knowledge of the branches without understanding the underlying principle is impossible. This major objective requires careful consideration of Usulul Fiqh and motivating towards a careful study of those Usul (underlying principles) ". This is the first of the two historical facts.

 

The second fact is that Sunni thinking on 'Ilmul Usul began to decline in the fifth and sixth centuries A.H. and its power of revitalization began to stagnate and it more and more tended towards Taqlid (reliance on authority) and this finally resulted in the official closing of the doors of Ijtihad"

 

The evidence pertaining to that period, from a Sunni scholar living at that time, is enough to establish this fact. Al-Ghazāli (d. 505 A.H.), while discussing the pre-requisites for one participating in polemics, mentioned, "that the person engaging himself in polemics should be a Mujtahid who gives legal verdicts on the basis of his own opinions and not according to the school of thought of al-Shafe'i or Abu Hanifah or any other. Thus if it appears to him that the right verdict is in accordance with the school of thought of Abu Hanifah, he should abandon the corresponding views of al-Shafe'i and deliver his verdict in accordance with what he considers to be correct. However for him, who has not reached the level of Ijtihad, this law includes everyone in all periods. Then what is the benefit, for him in polemics?"

 

When we combine these two facts and realize that the Sunni thinking on 'Ilmul Usul, which was a motivating factor for Shi 'ah thinking in the same field began to decline and became stagnant, we would be able to conclude that, intellectual thinking by our Imami jurists thus lost one of its motivating factors. This, we can deem as a contributing factor for the stagnation in the development of knowledge.

 

IBN IDRIS DESCRIBES THE PERIOD OF STAGNATION

 

Perhaps the best historical document concerning that period is the writing of the outstanding jurist, Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Idris, who lived during that period and

played a major role in resisting the stagnation. He infused a new life into intellectual thinking as we shall come to know soon. In the preface of his book "al-Sarā'ir, he wrote, "When I saw the indifference of the people of this age towards knowledge of the Shari'ah of Muhammad and of the laws of Islam, their sluggishness in seeking knowledge of it, their hostility towards that which they don't know and their neglect of that which they know and when I saw even in the elders of this age, the predominance of ignorance and their neglect of the demands of the time and their being satisfied with only that much knowledge which is obligatory on them so much so that they seem to be concerned with only today, and with the achievement of only this hour, and when I saw that knowledge was going to the depths of degradation, and the field of knowledge was devoid of security, I took the necessary steps to preserve the remaining signs of life, and restored life, which was at the point of cessation ".

 

RENEWAL OF LIFE AND VITALITY IN ACADEMIC RESEARCH

 

However, a hundred years had not elapsed, when a new life flowed into the researches on jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence in the sphere of the Shi'ite school of thought. It was at a time when Sunni intellectual research and study was stagnant, as described by al-Ghazāli in the fifth century (A,H.).

 

The underlying factor for this difference in the state of Sunni and Shi'ite research and study is based on many reasons, which contributed to Shi'ite intellectual thinking regaining its vigour and vitality in the spheres of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence while Sunni intellectual thinking failed to follow suit. We shall mention the following two reasons for this:

 

(1)  The spirit of Taqlid (following), which had pervaded the academic circle left behind by Shaykh Tusi, had penetrated in the midst of Sunni jurisprudence. However the nature of this spirit of Taqlid differed in the two cases. In the first case the spirit of Taqlid spread in the academic circle left behind by Shaykh Tusi because the former was not matured and could not readily interact with the new and original ideas of the illustrious Shaykh. Thus it was necessary for it to wait for sometime before it could grasp those ideas and before it could reach the level to interact with and influence those ideas. Thus by its very nature this spirit of Taqlid was only temporary. On the other hand in the Sunni juristic groups, the spirit of Taqlid spread because of their bygone days, when they had reached the peak of expansion and development, or after they had realized their objectives. We cannot elaborate on this point at this juncture because of the level of the present discussion. However, it was only natural that the spirit of stagnation and taqlid should become more firmly implanted in those groups with the passage of time.

 

(2)  Sunni jurisprudence was the official jurisprudence adopted by the State and promulgated for the fulfillment of its religious obligations. Hence, the State was a factor

for the motivation and development of Sunni jurisprudence. Thus, Sunni jurisprudence was influenced by political circumstances and flourished in times of political stability

but its zeal was diminished in circumstances of political confusion and instability.

 

On the basis of the above, it was only natural that Sunni jurisprudence should lose something (no matter how much) of its vitality in the sixth and seventh centuries and

afterwards as a result of political instability, and finally of the devastation at the hands of the Mongols who stormed the world of Islam and overthrew the governments.

 

On the basis of the above it was only natural that Sunni jurisprudence should lose something (no matter how much) of its setup. Nor did the Shi'ite jurists derive motivation and incentives for intellectual research and study from the needs of the political set-up. On the contrary they derived such motivation from the needs of the people who believed in the Imamate of the Ahlal Bayt (Progeny of the Prophet) and who took recourse to the jurists of the latter's school to solve their religious difficulties and to learn about the religious obligations according to the Shari 'ah. Hence, Shi'ite jurisprudence was influenced by the needs of the people and not by the political environment, as was the case with Sunni jurisprudence.

 

The Shi'ite jurisprudence, following the Ahlal Bayt, was in a state of continuous development. The relationship of the Shias with their jurists and their method of

seeking and obtaining the jurist's verdicts was becoming more defined and expanded. In this light, we come to know that Shi'ite jurisprudence did not lose any of the factors propelling it towards growth and development, but that it expanded, with the expansion of Shi'ism and with the spread of the idea of Taqlid, in an organized manner. Thus, we come to know that Shi'ite intellectual thinking possessed factors of expansion and development internally owing to its growth and its attitudes on the road to development and also externally due to the relationships between the Shi'ite jurists and the Shi'ah sect and the ever-increasing needs of the latter.

 

The relative stagnation of Shi'ite jurisprudence after the death of the illustrious Shaykh Tusi was only for the purpose of recouping its forces and of directing its development and growth to the level where it could interact with his views.

 

As regards the element of motivation represented by Sunni intellectual thinking, in spite of its being deprived of the Shi'ite intellectual thinking owing to the stagnation of the Sunni juristic groups, it then assumed anew form. This was because of the activity of religious confrontation taken up by the Shi'ahs. In the seventh century and thereafter they began the missionary role of inviting people to the Shi'ite school of thought. This missionary activity was carried on by our scholars like Allamah Hilli and others on an extensive scale. This in itself was enough to motivate Shi'ite intellectual thinking towards great depth and expansion, in the study of the underlying principles of the Sunnis, of their jurisprudence, and of their Kalām (scholastic theology). Thus, we witness a remarkable vigor and vitality in the studies on comparative jurisprudence undertaken by those scholars among the Shi'ite jurists, who were carrying out that missionary activity, like

Allamah Hilli.

 

FROM THE AUTHOR OF AL-SARĀ'IR TO THE AUTHOR OF AL-MA 'Ā LIM

 

Intellectual thinking began to emerge from the period of relative stagnation at the hands of that creative jurist, Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Idris (d. 598 A.H.) who infused new life into it. His book on jurisprudence, "al-Sarā'ir" stated that the school of Shaykh Tusi had matured to the level where it could interact with, the Shaykh's ideas. He thoroughly examined them and even criticized them.

 

From a study of the book, "al-Sarā'ir" and a comparison with "al-Mabsut" we are able to arrive at the following points:

 

1.  The book "al-Sarā'ir"; brings out the elements of Usulul Fiqh in the study of Fiqh and their relationship to jurisprudence in a more comprehensive manner than "al-Mabsut". For example we may mention that lbn ldris brought out three rules of 'Ilmul Usul while deducing the rules relating to "water" and linked his research on jurisprudence to them. However, we find no mention of any of these in the rules relating to "water" in the book

"al-Mabsut", even though in a general theoretical way they were present in the books on 'Ilmul Usul before lbn ldris.

 

2. The arguments and proofs presented by lbn ldris are more extensive than those in "al-Mabsut" and they include points on which lbn Idris differs with the Shaykh extensively on the objections to and the accumulation of testimonies. This is to the extent that a problem (for example)., the discussion of which may not exceed one line in "al-Mabsut" takes up a whole page in "al-Sarā'ir". In this category is the question of the purity of contaminated water if the water of the cistern happens to be kurr (377 kilograms).

 

Shaykh Tusi's verdict was that the water remained impure and he explained the reason for his view in a single sentence. On the other hand Ibn ldris adjudged the water pure in such a circumstance and extensively discussed the question. He concluded by saying, "On this question alone we have written about ten pages in which we reached our utmost limits, and we clearly proved our verdict thereon, elucidating various points, and giving proofs and testimonies from the verses of the Qur'an and the authentic traditions".

 

Regarding the points, on which Ibn Idris differs from Shaykh Tusi, we observe a great care on the former's part to carefully examine all the arguments which could support the latter's point of view, and then to refute them. Either the arguments which he examines and refutes are the products of his own point of view, or they represent an opposition to the mode of thinking prevalent against the new views of lbn ldris, i.e. that prevalent mode of thinking which these views aroused and which began to defend the views of Shaykh Tusi. Thus lbn Idris used to collect the arguments of his opponents and then refute them. This means that Ibn Idris's views provoked a reaction and exercised his influence on the prevalent intellectual thinking and invited the scholars to confrontation.

 

We know from "al-Sarā'ir" that Ibn Idris used to confront his contemporaries with his views and debate with them and was not solely preoccupied with the task of writing. Thus it was only natural that he should provoke reactions and that those reactions should express themselves in the form of arguments to support the views of Shaykh Tusi. Among those confrontations was the one mentioned in the chapter on Muzari'ah (contract of share-cropping) in "al-Sarā'ir" wherein Ibn Idris wrote as follows about a juristic view which he disapproved: "The exponent of this view is Sayyid Alawai Abul Makārim ibn

Zuhrah Halabi, whom I've seen and met. We corresponded and I made him aware of the mistakes he made in his writings and he excused himself (May Allah grant him mercy)".

 

Similarly, we become aware from the researches of Ibn Idris what he had to do with those who relied on the authority of Shaykh Tusi and were completely devoted to his views, and how he was harassed by their stagnation. On the question of the least amount of water obligatory to be emptied from a well in which an unbeliever has died, Ibn Idris gave a ruling that it was obligatory to empty all the water, on the basis of the unanimously accepted argument that if an unbeliever falls into the water of a well while

alive it is obligatory to empty all of it, Thus emptying all the water when he dies is all the more so obligatory, This form of argumentation based on priority and precedence bears the stamp of intellectual courage when compared with the level of knowledge during the time of Ibn Idris who commented on that level as follows, "It's as if I am among those who listen to this statement and then shun it and set it aside, saying: who said this? Who has seen thus in his book? Who has referred to it from among the specialists who are the models to be followed in this field? "Sometimes we find Ibn Idris addressing those who

rely totally on the authority of Shaykh Tusi by attempting to prove to them that the latter was also inclined to the same view, even though it needs a bit of interpretation. For example, on the question of water made impure.

 

About the contaminated water in the cistern, if it is a kurr he gives the verdict of its being pure and endeavors to prove that Shaykh Tusi also was inclined to the view of its purity. He wrote, "Shaykh Abu Ja'far Tusi, who holds the opposite view and is followed by many on this question, has used arguments in many of his statements, which strengthen the view and the verdict that such water is pure. I shall explain that the fragrance of the complete acceptance of this point spreads from the lips of Shaykh Abu Ja'far, when his statement and writings are justly pondered over examined correctly and considered impartially".

 

3.  Historically the book ' 'al-Sarā'ir', was in a way contemporary to the book 'al-Ghunyah' in which Hamza ibn Ali ibquhrah Husayni Halabi started the study of 'Ilmul Usul as an independent branch of knowledge, because Ibn Zuhrah died only 19 years before Ibn Idris. Hence the two books belong to the same period.

 

If we examine the Usul (underlying principles) of lbn Zuhrah, we find that he shares the distinction with Ibn Idris in that age of absolute reliance on the views of Shaykh Tusi. This distinction is the departure from or disagreement with the latter's views and the acceptance of points of view directly in conflict with the Shaykh's stand on 'Ilmul Usul or Fiqh. Just as in "al-Sarā'ir" we see Ibn Idris trying to refute the Shaykh's arguments in the sphere of jurisprudence, similarly in al-Ghunyah we find Ibn Zuhrah criticizing the arguments of the Shaykh in his book "al-Iddah" and bringing forth arguments to support

contradictory points of view. Not only that; he even raises new issues in 'Ilmul Usul not raised before in "al-iddah " in that manner. [6]

 

This means that intellectual thinking had grown and expanded in both fields, 'Ilmul Usul and Fiqh, until it had reached the level enabling it to interact with the views of the Shaykh and to an extent to criticize them in both these fields, This only strengthens our view that the growth of thinking in 'Ilmul Fiqh and Usulul Fiqh proceeds along the parallel lines not differing greatly from each other, because of the interaction and inter-relationships between them.

 

The intellectual movement continued to grow, expand, and increase, generation after generation. In those generations there were some illustrious scholars, who wrote on

'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh and showed originality in their work. Among them was Muhaqqiq Najmuddin Ja'far ibn Hasan ibn Yahya ibn Sa'id Hilli (d. 676 A.H.), who was a pupil of the students of Ibn Idris, He was the author of that outstanding book on jurisprudence, "Sharā'iul Islam" which became the pivot for further research and study in

the academic circle replacing the book "an-Nihayah" which Shaykh Tusi had written before "al-Mabsut".

 

This change from "an-Nihayah' to "Sharā'iul Islam" indicates a tremendous development in the standard of knowledge, because the former was a book of law covering the basic questions in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence, On the other hand, Shara'iul Islam" was an extensive work covering branches (Furu') of jurisprudence as well as the derivation of laws along the lines laid down by Shaykh Tusi in "al-Mabsut'. Thus the assumption by this book to the official position formerly held by "an-Nihayah" in the academic circle and the intellectual movement indicate that the movement for branching out from the general laws and deriving other laws had become widespread to the extent that the whole academic circle was undertaking such activity. Muhaqqiq Hilli also wrote books on 'Ilmul Usul among which are 'Nahjul Wusul ila Ma'rifatil Usul' and 'al-Ma'ārij.'

 

 

Among those illustrious scholars was also the student and nephew of al-Muhaqqiq, known as al-Allamah. He was al-Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn Ali ibn Mutahhar (d. 726 A.H.)

He wrote a number of books on principles of jurisprudence of the nature of "Tahzibul Wusul ila 'Ilmul Usul", "Mabidiu'l Wusul ila 'Ilmul Usul", etc.

 

The intellectual growth in the fields of research on principles of jurisprudence continued till the end of the tenth century. The main representative of that growth in the latter part of the tenth century A.H. was Hasan ibn Zaynuddin (d. 1011 A.H.) His book on 'Ilmul Usul was "al Ma'ālim" in which he reflected the high level of 'Ilmul Usul in his age in a simple style and a new arrangement and systematic order. This endowed the book with a great importance in the world of research on 'Ilmul Usul, so much so that it became a textbook on this branch of knowledge and research scholars took it up for writing commentaries on it and criticizing it.

 

From the point of time "al-Ma'ālim" was near to the book "Zubdatul Usul" written by eminent scholar, Shaykh Bahā'i (d. 1031 A.H.), in the beginning of the eleventh

century (A.H.).

 

THE SHOCK EXPERIENCED BY 'ILMUL USUL

After the demise of the author of "Ma'ālimuddin", Usulul Fiqh experienced a shock that thwarted its growth and development and exposed it to severe attack. The attack was the result of the emergence of the movement of the Akhbāris (exponents of the traditions exclusively) in the beginning of the eleventh century (A.H.) at the hands of Mirza Muhammad Amin Istirābadi (d. 1021 A.H.) and the grave situation which developed after the demise of the founder especially during the latter part of the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. This attack had psychological motives which prompted the Akhbāris from among our scholars led by the Muhaddith Istirābadi to oppose 'Ilmul Fiqh and rendered help in the relative success of their opponents. Among those motives we may mention the following:

 

1.  The lack of comprehension of the concept of common elements in the process of deduction on the part of the Akhbāris. This caused them to think that attributing the process of deduction to the common elements and to the laws of 'Ilmul Usul, results in disregarding the authentic texts of the Shari'ah and in lowering the importance of such texts.

 

Had they only grasped the concept of common elements in the process of deduction in the manner taught by the Usuliyin (the specialists in 'Ilmul Usul) they would have come to know that both the common and the particular elements have their own fundamental role and importance and that 'Ilmul Usul does not aim at replacing the particular elements by the common elements. On the contrary, it lays down the necessary laws for making deduction to derive the laws from those very particular elements.

 

2.   Historically the Sunnis had before that pursued research in 'Ilmul Usul and produced rich literature on it. Thus, in the minds of those opposing it, 'Ilmul Usul had acquired the stigma of Sunnism, and they began to consider it to be a result of the Sunni school of thought. Previously we mentioned the historical priority of Sunni Fiqh in pursuing research on 'Ilmul Usul did not result from any special link between 'Ilmul Usul and the Sunni school of thought. On the contrary, it is related to the extent of the distance in time of the thinking on 'Ilmul Fiqh from the age of the promulgation of the authentic texts it believed in. The Sunnis believed that this age came to an end with the demise of the Holy Prophet (p). Thus they found themselves, at the end of the second century, far removed from the age of the promulgation of the authentic texts to such an extent that it set them thinking on establishing 'Ilmul Usul. However at that time the Shi'ahs were still living in the period of the promulgation of the authentic texts, which in their view, extends up to the Occultation period. We find this notion clearly and explicitly in the following quotation from al-Wasā'il by the jurist, Muhaqqiq Sayyid Muhsin A'raji (d. 1227 A.H.) refuting the Akhbāris:

 

"Our opponents, as they needed to give consideration to these matters before we did so, preceded us in the collection and compilation of traditions, as they were far removed in time from the companions of the Holy Prophet (p) and the rightly guided Imams (a). They then opened anew field for the deduction of laws, covering many subjects abstruse in nature and of copious details, i.e. al-Qiyās (analogy). They were forced towards the compilation and collection of traditions because of great urgency, while at that time we were satisfied with living in the age of the promulgators of the Shari'ah (the rightly guided Imams), taking the laws from them verbally and coming to know what they desired directly. This continued up to the occurrence of the Occultation, when there was separation between the Imam of the age and us. Then we became in need of those subjects and our predecessors wrote on them. Those scholars included like Ibn Junayd and Ibn Abi Aqil, and those after them like Sayyid, the two Shaykhs, Abu Salāh; Abu Makarim, Ibn Idris, the two Fazils and the two Shahids (shahid awwal and shahid thani), and others right up to the present day. Do you think we should avoid those subjects in spite of the pressing need that we experience, just because our opponents have preceded us in that field? The Holy Prophet (p) had said, 'Wisdom is the lost property of the believer!' we did not enter those fields as followers, but we set about making the most careful research and investigation and did not give a ruling on any question until after we had advanced valid proofs arid after we had made our method clear".

 

3.  What served to support the stamp of Sunnism on 'Ilmul Usul in the minds of these Akhbāris is that Ibn Junayd one of the pioneers of Ijtihad and of those who planted the seeds of 'Ilmul Usul in Shi'ite Fiqh, was in agreement with most of the Sunni schools of thought in advocating al-Qiyās (analogy). But the fact that some ideas from the Sunni schools of thought were adopted by a person like Ibn Junayd does not mean that 'Ilmul Usul, is intrinsically something like Sunnism. It is only a case of a later intellectual endeavour being influenced by earlier experiences in its field. Since the Sunnis had prior experience in research on 'Ilmul Usul, it is but natural that we find the influence of this in some later researches. Sometimes this influence reaches the degree of adoption of some previous views, ignoring factual evidence. However this does not necessarily mean that the Shi'ahs acquired 'Ilmul Usul from Sunni thinking or that it was imposed upon them from that source. On the contrary it was a necessity that the process of deduction and the needs of this process, imposed on Ja'fari jurisprudence.

 

4. The belief of the Akhbāris that 'Ilmul Usul had a Sunni framework was supported by the spread of terminology from the Sunni researches on 'Ilmul Usul to the Shi'ite specialists on this subject, and their acceptance of that terminology after it had developed and become delineated to devote concepts which were in agreement with the Shi'ah point of view. An example of this is the term 'Ijtihad' which we have previously discussed. Our Shi'ah scholars took this term from Sunni Fiqh and developed its meaning. This caused the Akhbāris among our scholars, who did not perceive the fundamental change in the usage of this term to feel that 'Ilmul Usul of our scholars had adopted the same general trends present in the intellectual thinking of the Sunnis. That is why they sharply criticized 'Ijtihad' and opposed the research scholars among our companions regarding its permissibility.

 

5.   The role played by reason in 'Ilmul Usul was another thing which provoked the Akhbāris against this branch of knowledge, owing to their extremist view regarding reason, as we have seen in a previous discussion.

 

6.   Perhaps the most successful tactics employed by Muhaddith Istirābadi and his colleagues to arouse the general Shi'ah view in regard to 'Ilmul Usul was the exploitation of the modernity of the founding of 'Ilmul Usul. It was a branch of knowledge that did not develop in the Shi'ite outlook until after the Occultation.

 

This means that the companions of the Imams and the jurists of their school of thought passed their lives without 'Ilmul Usul and did not feel any need for it. The jurists among the students of the Imams like Zurarah ibn A'yun, Muhammad ibn Muslim, Muhammad ibn Abi Umayr, Yunus ibn Abdur Rahman, etc. were not in need of 'Ilmul Usul in their Fiqh. Thus, there is no need to get entangled in that in which they did not involve themselves, and to say that deduction and Fiqh are dependent on 'Ilmul Usul is meaningless.

 

We can realize the error in the light of the fact that the need for 'Ilmul Usul was a historical one. Thus if the narrators of traditions and the jurists living in the age of the promulgation of the authentic texts of the Shari'ah felt the need to found 'Ilmul Usul, it does not mean that the thinking on Fiqh would have no need to be removed in time from the contexts of the texts of the Shari'ah, particularly when this distance in time is daily increasing. This is because this great distance in time brings the gaps in the process of deduction and it then becomes obligatory on the jurist to formulate general laws of 'Ilmul Usul to deal with those gaps.

 

THE ALLEGED ROOTS OF THE MOVEMENT OF THE AKHBĀRIS

Despite the fact that Muhaddith Istirabadi was the leader of this movement, he tried in his book Fawā'idul Madaniyyah to trace the history of the movement back to the age of the Imams and to prove that it has deep roots in Shi'ite jurisprudence, so that it might acquire the stamp of legality and respect. Thus, he would say that the Akhbāri trend was the prevalent one among the Shi'ite jurists up to the age of Kulayni and Saduq and others who in Istirabādi's opinion, are among the representatives of this trend) but this trend did not make its presence definitely felt until the latter part of the fourth century and even afterwards when a group of Shi'ite scholars began to deviate from the lines of the Akhbāris and to rely on reason in making deduction and to relate researches in Fiqh to 'Ilmul Usul, having been influenced by the Sunni method of deduction. Thenceforth, this deviation began to expand and spread. In this context Istirabādi quotes a statement of Allamah Hilli (who had lived three centuries before the former) in which a group of Shi'ite scholars is referred to as "the Akhbāris". He used this statement to show the historical antiquity of the Akhbāri trend. However, the fact is that in using the word 'Akhbāris'  in his statement, Allamah Hilli was referring to one of the stages of the thinking on Fiqh, and not to a movement advocating a limited trend in deduction. From the earliest ages there were Akhbāris among the Shi'ah jurists representing the initial stages of the thinking on Fiqh. Whereas these other Akhbāris are those who have been discussed by Shaykh Tusi in "al-Mabsut" about the narrowness of their horizons and their confirming their legal researches to the underlying principles (Usul) of the problems and avoiding the branches and extensions as far as application is concerned. In tough opposition to them are the jurists specializing in 'Ilmul Usul who think with its principles and apply themselves to the branches of Fiqh in an extensive sphere. The use of the word, "Akhbāris" in the olden days was only an expression to devote one of the levels of legal thinking and not one of the schools of thought.

 

This point has been emphasized by the eminent research scholar Shaykh Muhammad Taqi (d. 1248 A.H.) in his extensive commentary on "al-Ma'ālim". Referring to this matter he wrote,  'If you say, 'from the olden days the Shi'ah scholars were divided into two classes, Akhbāri and Usuli, as the Allamah has indicated in "an-Nihayah." and as others also have done then I would reply that even though our earlier scholars were divided in two classes and that the Akhbāris were one of them, yet their ways were not those as claimed by today's Akhbāris. Nay there were no differences between them and the Usuliyun, except in the extent of the scope of the branches of Fiqh and the extent of the importance given to the universal laws and to the power to derive branches from that. Among them was a group who were the preservers of the authentic texts of the Shari'ah and the narrators of traditions. However many of them did not possess insight and depth to tackle intellectual problems. They mostly did not undertake the branches not dealt with in the texts. These are the scholars known as the Akhbāris. Another group of scholars possessed insight, and, being inclined to research and deep study, investigated the problems to formulate the laws of the Shari'ah from the arguments available. They had the ability to formulate principles and universal laws from the proofs and arguments existing in the Shari'ah and to apply them to the branches from that and to derive the laws of the Shari'ah accordingly. These are the scholars known as the Usuliyun (the specialists in the principles of jurisprudence), like 'Umani, Iskāfi, Shaykh Mufid, Sayyid Murtaza, Shaykh Tusi and others who followed in their footsteps. If you consider for a while, you will not find any differences between the two groups except that the latter carry on the research on problems and possess great insight to make necessary deductions and to derive the branches from the various laws. For this reason their scope was more extensive in research and insight and they took upon themselves the task of explaining the branches and the legal problems, and went beyond the scope of the texts of the traditions. Those Muhaddithin (traditionalists) mostly did not have the ability to do so, nor had that mastery over the art. Hence, they confined themselves to the literal meanings of the traditions and in most cases did not go beyond their literal contents, nor was their scope for discussing the branches on the basis of the laws extensive. Since they lived at the beginning of the spread of Fiqh and of the emergence of the Shi'ite school of thought, they were concerned with checking the underlying principles of the laws that were based on the traditions narrated from the pious Ahlal Bayt (Progeny of the Holy Prophet). Thus they were not able to examine their contents more closely and to derive various branches from them. This was done in the later periods because of the continuous influx of ideas". The eminent jurist Shaykh Yusuf Bahrayni in his book "al-Hadā'iq", despite being in agreement with some of the views of the Muhaddith Istirābadi, accepts that the latter was the first to make the Akhbāri outlook a separate school of thought and to create differences in the ranks of the scholars on that basis. He wrote, "The fame of these differences did not arise nor did this deviation occur before the author of "al-Fawā 'idul Madaniyyah', (may Almighty pardon him and grant him mercy). He was the one to open his lips to denounce the companions in elaborate detail. He is noted for his bigotry and fanaticism which was not becoming of a noble scholar of his status".

 

TRENDS OF WRITING IN THAT PERIOD

If we study the intellectual achievements of that period, in which the Akhbāri movement expanded, in the latter part of the eleventh and during the twelfth centuries, we would find an active trend at that time, confined to the collection of traditions and to writing voluminous extensive works on the traditions and narrations. It was during that period that Shaykh Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (may Allah bless him, d. 1110 A.H.), wrote the book, "al-Bihār", which is the greatest of the extensive works on traditions with the Shi'ah. And Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan Hurr Āmili (may Allah bless him, d. 1104 A.H.) wrote the book "al-Wasā'il" in which he collected a large number of traditions related to Fiqh. Fayz Muhsin Kāshāni (d. 1091 A.H.) wrote "al-Wāfi" containing the traditions mentioned in al-Kutub al-Arba'ah (The Four Books on Traditions). And Sayyid Hashim Bahrāni (d. 1107 A.H. or thereabouts) wrote "al-Burhan", in which he collected the narrations relating to the interpretations of the Qur'an.

 

However, this general trend of writing on the traditions in that period does not mean that the Akhbāri movement was the reason for its coming into being, even though it was most probably a contributing factor, despite the fact that some of the most prominent authors in that trend were not Akhbāris. This trend was the result of a number of reasons, the most important of which was that a number of works on traditions were discovered during the century after the Shaykh and were not mentioned in al-Kutub al-Arba'ah. Hence it was necessary that extensive works might be composed encompassing those different books and containing all the investigation and thorough research in respect of traditions and books of traditions.

 

In the light of the above, we can consider the activity in writing those voluminous extensive works, which took place in that period, as one of the factors (in addition to the Akhbāri movement) which opposed the growth and development of research on 'Ilmul Usul. In any case this was an auspicious factor because the composition of those extensive works was useful in the process of deduction which 'Ilmul Usul served.

 

RESEARCH ON 'ILMUL USUL IN THAT PERIOD

In spite of the shock experienced by research on 'Ilmul Usul during that period, its flame was not extinguished nor did it come to a complete halt. Thus Mulla Abdullah Tuni

(d. 1071 A.H.) wrote "al-Wāfiyah" on 'Ilmul Usul. After him there was the eminent research scholar Sayyid Husayn Khunsāri (d. 1098 A.H.) who was known for his immense knowledge and erudition. He imparted a new vigour to the thinking on 'Ilmul Usul as is evident from his ideas on that subject contained in his book on Fiqh, 'Mashariqush Shumus fi Sharhid Durus". As a result of his great work in philosophical colour in a manner unmatched before him we say that it took on a philosophical colour and not a philosophical outlook, because this illustrious scholar was an opponent of philosophy and had long conflicts with its exponents. So his thought was not philosophical in the form of taqlid which philosophy had developed, even though it bore a philosophical colour. Thus when he undertook research on 'Ilmul Usul this philosophical colour was represented in it and into 'Ilmul Usul flowed a philosophical trend in thinking with a spirit of freedom from the forms of Taqlid, which philosophy had adopted in its discussions and research. This spirit of freedom exercised a tremendous influence in the history of knowledge afterwards, as we shall see Inshā Allah.

 

It was in the time of Khunsāri that Muhaqqiq Muhammad ibn Hasan Sherwāni (d. 1098 A.H.) wrote his commentary on "al-Ma'ālim". After that we come across two works on 'Ilmul Usul. The first one was carried out by Jamaluddin ibn Khunsari, who wrote a commentary on "al-Mukhtasar". And Shaykh Ansari has confirmed in "al-Rasā'il " that Jamaluddin was the first to arrive at some of the concepts of 'Ilmul Usul. The second of those two works was by Sayyid Sadruddin Qummi (d. 1071 A.H.) who was a student of Jamaluddin and wrote a commentary on Tuni's "al-Wāfiyah". Ustad Wahid Bahbahāni was a student of Sayyid Sadruddin. The fact is that the elder Khunsāri, his contemporary Sherwāni, his son Jamaluddin, and his son's pupil Sadruddin, despite living in the period when the Akhbāri movement shook research on 'Ilmul Usul to its roots, and when work on the traditions was spreading despite all this, these were the factors in furthering the thinking on 'Ilmul Usul. They paved the way through their studies for the emergence of the school of Ustad Wahid Bahbahāni, which initiated a new era in the history of knowledge, as we shall see later. Hence, we can deem the studies carried out by the four scholars as the main seeds for the emergence of this school and the last laurels won by intellectual thinking, in the second era, as a preparation for the changeover to the third era.

 

THE VICTORY OF 'ILMUL USUL AND THE EMERGENCE OF A NEW SCHOOL

The Akhbāri trend was able, in the twelfth century, to take Karbala (Iraq) as its centre. Hence, it was contemporary to the birth of a new school in 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usul, which arose in Karbala also at the hands of its leader, the great Mujaddid Muhammad Baqir Bahbahāni (d. 1206 A.H.). This new school set itself up to check the Akhbāri movement and to secure victory for 'Ilmul Usul, which it did until the Akhbāri trend declined and suffered defeat. In addition this school began to advance the cause of intellectual thinking and to raise 'Ilmul Usul to a very high standard, so that we can say that the emergence of this school and the co-operative efforts made by Bahbahāni and the students of his school (who were great research scholars) formed a distinct dividing line between two eras in the history of intellectual thinking on 'Ilmul Fiqh and 'Ilmul Usul.

 

The positive role played by this school and the opening by it of a new era in the history of knowledge were influenced by a number of factors, among which are:

 

(i) The reaction evoked by the Akhbāri movement, especially when its exponents assembled at the same place as the group advocating 'Ilmul Usul i.e. Karbala. This naturally led to an increase of tension and a multiplying of the strength of the reaction.

(ii) The need for producing new extensive works on the traditions had been sated and had ceased to exist, after the writing of "al-Wasā'il", "al-Wāfi" and "al-Bihār" except that the cause of knowledge should direct its intellectual vigour towards deriving benefit from those works in the process of deduction.

 

(iii) The philosophical trend in thinking, of which Khunsāri had established one of the main bases endowed intellectual thinking with anew strength for development and opened a new field for originality. The school of Bahbahāni was the heir to this trend.

 

(iv) The factor of place; the school of Ustad Wahid Bahbahāni developed not far from the main centre of the academic circle in Najaf, and this proximity to the centre was one reason for its permanence and continuity of existence through succeeding generations of teachers and students. This enabled it to continuously increase its knowledge of one generation of its scholars to be added to that of the succeeding generation, until it was able to make a great leap in advancing the cause of knowledge to the extent of giving it the feature of a new era. Thus Bahbahāni school is distinguished from so many other schools which arose here and there, far from the centre of the academic circle, and which disappeared with the death of their founders.

 

 

TEXT DEPICTING THE STRUGGLE WITH THE AKHBĀRI MOVEMENT

Muhaqqiq Bahbahāni, the founder of this school wrote a book on 'Ilmul Usul named "al-Fawā'id al-Hā'iriyah" from which we come to know the strong motive of the struggle he waged against the Akhbāri movement. Here we are selecting a passage from that book referring to some of the doubts of the Akhbāris and their arguments against 'Ilmul Usul. Our previous explanation that the need for 'Ilmul Usul was felt will become evident in refuting those arguments.

 

Bahbahāni wrote, "As the age of the Imams receded into history and the characteristics and proofs of Fiqh which had been laid down by the jurists and openly accepted by them, became vague and indistinct owing to their demise, the centres of learning became empty, so much so, that most of their works became extinct, as was the case with previous nations and the fate of previous codes of law. When the age became more distant in time from the promulgator of its Shari'ah, the old concepts became vague and new ideas came into being until that Shari'ah disappeared altogether. Some imagine that Shaykh Mufid and the jurists after him up to the present day, were united in ruling that the original thinkers introducing new ideas were misguided that they were following the masses and opposing the way of the Imams and changing the latter's specific way in spite of their nearness [7] in time to the age of the Imams, of their utmost glory, justice and knowledge of Fiqh and of the traditions, of their profoundness, piety and godliness".

 

He goes on to present the extent of the insolence of his antagonists against those great scholars and calls them to account for that insolence. Then he goes on, "Another of their doubts is that the narrators of these traditions did not know the laws of the Mujtahids [8] (i.e. 'Ilmul Usul) although traditions formed a valid proof for them. So we also like them, do not stand in need of any of the conditions of (ijtihad) and our circumstances are exactly like theirs. They do not direct themselves to the fact that those narrators were fully aware that what they had heard were the words of their Imam and that they were able to understand those words by virtue of their belonging to the literatures of the age of the infallible ones and were not beset with any of the confusions which you feel and thus did not need any remedy for them".

 

SUMMARY

We are not in a position, at the level of this discussion to elaborate on the important role played by the teachers as well as the pupils of this school and the development and profoundity that it secured for the cause of knowledge. However, we can reiterate that what has preceded about the history of knowledge is that intellectual thinking passed through three eras:

 

1. The preparatory era -the age when the main seeds of 'Ilmul Usul were planted. This era began with Ibn Abi Aqil and Ibn Junayd and ended with the appearance of Shaykh Tusi.

 

2. The era of knowledge- the age of the germination of those seeds and their bearing fruit. During this period the outlines of thinking on 'Ilmul Usul became delineated and represented in the fields of research on Fiqh on a wide scale. The leader of this age was Shaykh Tusi and among its eminent scholars were Ibn Idris, Muhaqqiq Hilli, the Allamah, Shahid awwal and other illustrious scholars.

 

3. The era of perfection in knowledge- the age which was initiated in the history of knowledge by the new school which appeared in the latter part of the twelfth century at the hands of Ustad Wahid Bahbahāni and which began the third era for knowledge, through its co-operative efforts in the fields of 'Ilmul Usul and 'Ilmul Fiqh.

 

These efforts were expressed in the thoughts and researches of the leader of the school, Ustad Wahid, and of the prominent figures, who continued the work of their leader for nearly half a century until the general characteristics of the third era were completed, and this age reached its peak. In this period, three generations of illustrious scholars followed.

 

The first generation is represented by the great research scholars among the students of Ustad Wahid, like Sayyid Mahdi Bahrul 'Ulum (d. 1212 A.H.), Shaykh Ja'far Kāshiful Ghita' (d. 1227 A.H.), Mirza Abul Qāsim Qummi (d. 1227 A.H.), Sayyid A1i Tabatabā'i (d. 1121 A.H.) and Shaykh Asadullah Tustari (d.1234 A.H.).

 

Representing the second generation are those illustrious scholars trained by some of the above, like, Shaykh Muhammad Taqi ibn Abdur Rahim (d. 1248 A.H.), Shariful 'Ulama Muhammad Sharif ibn Hasan Ali (d. 1245 A.H.), Sayyid Muhsin A'raji (d. 1227 A.H.), Maula Ahmad Narāqi (d. 1245 A.H.), Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi (d. 1266

A.H.) and others. As regards the third generation, at its head was a pupil of Shariful 'Ulema, the great research scholar Shaykh Murtaza Ansari who was born after the emergence of the new school in 1214 A.H. and whose level of education was contemporary to this school at the peak of its development and activity. He was able to rise together with the cause of knowledge in its third era to the height at which the new

school was aiming. 'Ilmul Usul and intellectual thinking are still prevalent in the Imami academic circles which existed in this third era as initiated by the school of Ustad Wahid.

 

Our division of the history of knowledge into three eras does not preclude us from dividing each of these eras into various stages of growth, each stage having its own

leader and director. On this basis, we deem Shaykh Ansari, (d. 1281 A.H., may Allah bless him), the supreme leader of one of the stages in the third era, i.e. the stage representing intellectual thinking from more than a hundred years ago to the present day.

 

NOTES

 

[4] Among these are the reports transmitted about dealing with contradictory texts, about the validity of the narrations of trustworthy narrators as proofs, about the genuineness of al-Barā'at (exemption), about the permissibility of using Rā'y and Ijtihad and other such propositions.

 

[5] Viz. throwing light on the incorrectness of many of their views which are put forth and they try to prove these, as correct views.

 

[6] There is no harm in citing two or three instances wherein the view of Ibn Zuhrah differs from that of the Shaykh Tusi. Among them is the question of the imperative mood indicating immediacy (to perform an act at once). Shaykh Tusi had given the ruling that the imperative mood indicated immediacy, which was denied by Ibn Zuhrah who said, "The imperative mood is neutral, indicating neither immediacy nor non-immediacy". There is also the question that prohibition from a certain act necessarily indicates its being corrupt. Shaykh Tusi had given the ruling that its being corrupt was necessarily implied in a prohibition. This was denied by Ibn Zuhrah, who made a distinction between illegality (al-Hurmah) and being corrupt (al-Fasād), and denied that one necessarily implied the other. Later on Ibn Zuhrah, in his researches on generality (al-'Ām) and particularity (al-Khāss), raised the issue of the validity as proof of a specific generality, outside the source of its specification, whereas this issue had not been raised in the book "al-Iddah".

 

[7] They are blamed, for their (unbecoming) attitude, in spite of their nearness in time, to the age of the Imam (P). (page 56)

 

[8] 'Ilmul Usul is meant by the laws of the Mujtahids.  (page 57)

Forty Hadith Qudsi 

Hadith Collection

 
Hadith Qudsi 1:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

When Allah decreed the Creation He pledged Himself by writing in His Book which is laid down with Him: My mercy prevails over my wrath.

It was related by Muslim, al-Bukhari, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.
 

Hadith Qudsi 2:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: Allah Almighty has said:

The son of Adam denied Me and he had no right to do so. And he reviled Me and he had no right to do so. As for his denying Me, it is his saying: He will not remake me as He made me at first (1) - and the initial creation [of him] is no easier for Me than remaking him. As for his reviling Me, it is his saying: Assah has taken to Himself a son, while I am the One, the Everlasting Refuge. I begot not nor was I begotten, and there is none comparable to Me.

(1) i.e., bring me back to life after death. It was related by al-Bukhari (also by an-Nasa'i).
 

Hadith Qudsi 3:

On the authority of Zayd ibn Khalid al-Juhaniyy (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu)), who said:

The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) led the morning prayer for us at al-Hudaybiyah following rainfall during the night. When the Prophet(Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) finished, he faced the people and said to them: Do you know what your Lord has said? They said: Allah and his Messenger know best. He said: This morning one of My servants became a believer in Me and one a disbeliever. As for him who said: We have been given rain by virtue of Allah and His mercy, that one is a believer in Me, a disbeliever in the stars (2); and as for him who said: We have been given rain by such-and-such a star, that one is a disbeliever in Me, a believer in the stars.

(2) The pre-Islamic Arabs believed that rain was brought about by the movement of stars. This Hadith draws attention to the fact that whatever be the direct cause of such natural phenomena as rain, it is Allah the Almighty who is the Disposer of all things.

It is related by al-Bukhari (also by Malik and an-Nasa'i).
 

Hadith Qudsi 4:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah said: Sons of Adam inveigh against [the vicissitudes of] Time, and I am Time, in My hand is the night and the day (1).

(1) As the Almighty is the Ordainer of all things, to inveigh aginst misfortunes that are part of Time is tantamount to inveighing against Him.

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim).
 

Hadith Qudsi 5:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah Ta'ala said: I am so self-sufficient that I am in no need of having an associate. Thus he who does an action for someone else's sake as well as Mine will have that action renounced by Me to him whom he associated with Me.

It was related by Muslim (also by Ibn Majah).
 

Hadith Qudsi 6:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) say:

The first of people against whom judgment will be pronounced on the Day of Resurrection will be a man who died a martyr. He will be brought and Allah will make known to him His favours and he will recognize them. [ The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I fought for you until I died a martyr. He will say: You have lied - you did but fight that it might be said [of you]: He is courageous. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man who has studied [religious] knowledge and has taught it and who used to recite the Quran. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I studied [religious] knowledge and I taught it and I recited the Quran for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but study [religious] knowledge that it might be said [of you]: He is learned. And you recited the Quran that it might be said [of you]: He is a reciter. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire. [Another] will be a man whom Allah had made rich and to whom He had given all kinds of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make known to his His favours and he will recognize them. [The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I left no path [untrodden] in which You like money to be spent without spending in it for Your sake. He will say: You have lied - you did but do so that it might be said [of you]: He is open-handed. And so it was said. Then he will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire.

It was related by Muslim (also by at-Tirmidhi and an-Nasa'i).
 

Hadith Qudsi 7:

On the authority of Uqbah ibn Amir (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said: I heard the messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) say:

Your Lord delights at a shepherd who, on the peak of a mountain crag, gives the call to prayer and prays. Then Allah (glorified and exalted be He) say: Look at this servant of Mine, he gives the call to prayer and performs the prayers; he is in awe of Me. I have forgiven My servant [his sins] and have admitted him to Paradise.

It was related by an-Nasa'i with a good chain of authorities.
 

Hadith Qudsi 8:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), who said:

A prayer performed by someone who has not recited the Essence of the Quran (1) during it is deficient (and he repeated the word three times), incomplete. Someone said to Abu Hurayrah: [Even though] we are behind the imam? (2) He said: Recite it to yourself, for I have heard the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) say: Allah (mighty and sublime be He), had said: I have divided prayer between Myself and My servant into two halves, and My servant shall have what he has asked for. When the servant says: Al-hamdu lillahi rabbi l-alamin (3), Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says: My servant has praised Me. And when he says: Ar-rahmani r-rahim (4), Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says: My servant has extolled Me, and when he says: Maliki yawmi d-din (5), Allah says: My servant has glorified Me - and on one occasion He said: My servant has submitted to My power. And when he says: Iyyaka na budu wa iyyaka nasta in (6), He says: This is between Me and My servant, and My servant shall have what he has asked for. And when he says: Ihdina s-sirata l- mustaqim, siratal ladhina an amta alayhim ghayril-maghdubi alayhim wa la d-dallin (7), He says: This is for My servant, and My servant shall have what he has asked for. (1) Surat al-Fatihah, the first surah (chapter) of the Qur'an. (2) i.e. standing behind the imam (leader) listening to him reciting al-Fatihah. (3) "Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds." (4) "The Merciful, the Compassionate". (5) "Master of the Day of Judgement". (6) "It is You we worship and it is You we ask for help". (7) "Guide us to the straight path, the path of those upon whom You have bestowed favors, not of those against whom You are angry, nor of those who are astray".

It was related by Muslim (also by Malik, at-Tirmidhi, Abu-Dawud, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah).
 

Hadith Qudsi 9:
On the authority of Abu Harayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), who said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says: The fist of his actions for which a servant of Allah will be held accountable on the Day of Resurrection will be his prayers. If they are in order, then he will have prospered and succeeded: and if they are wanting, then he will have failed and lost. If there is something defective in his obligatory prayers, the Lord (glorified and exalted be He) will say: See if My servant has any supererogatory prayers with which may be completed that which was defective in his obligatory prayers. Then the rest of his actions will be judged in like fashion.

It was related by at-Tirmidhi (also by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Ahmad).
 

Hadith Qudsi 10:

On the authority of Abu Harayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), who said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says: Fasting is Mine and it I who give reward for it. [A man] gives up his sexual passion, his food and his drink for my sake. Fasting is like a shield, and he who fasts has two joys: a joy whin he breaks his fast and a joy when he meets his Lord. The change in the breath of the mouth of him who fasts is better in Allah's estimation than the smell of musk.

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim, Malik, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah).
 

Hadith Qudsi 11:

On the authority of Abu Harayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), who said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) said: Spend (on charity), O son of Adam, and I shall spend on you.

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim).
 

Hadith Qudsi 12:

On the authority of Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah(Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

A man from among those who were before you was called to account. Nothing in the way of good was found for him except that he used to have dealings with people and, being well-to-do, he would order his servants to let off the man in straitened circumstances [from repaying his debt]. He (the Prophet p.b.u.h) said that Allah said: We are worthier than you of that (of being so generous). Let him off.

It was related by Muslim (also by al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i).
 

Hadith Qudsi 13:

On the authority of Adiyy ibn Hatim (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said:

I was with the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) and there came to him two men: one of them was complaining of penury (being very poor), while the other was complaining of brigandry (robbery). The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: As for brigandry, it will be but a short time before a caravan will [be able to] go out of Mecca without a guard. As for penury, the Hour (Day of Judgement) will not arrive before one of you takes his charity around without finding anyone to accept it from him. Then (1) one of you will surely stand before Allah, there being no screed between Him and him, nor an interpreter to translate for him. Then He will say to him: Did I not bring you wealth? And he will say: Yes. Then He will say: Did I not send to you a messenger? And he will say: Yes. And he will look to his right and will see nothing but Hell-fire, then he will look to his left and will see nothing but Hell-fire, so let each of you protect himself against Hell-fire, be it with even half a date - and if he finds it not, then with a kind word.

(1) i.e. at the time of the Hour.

It was related by al-Bukhari.
 

Hadith Qudsi 14:

On the authority of Abu Harayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), who said:

Allah (glorified and exalted be He) has supernumerary angels who rove about seeking out gatherings in which Allah's name is being invoked: they sit with them and fold their wings round each other, fillin that which is between them and between the lowest heaven. When [the people in the gathering] depart, [the angels] ascend and rise up to heaven. He (the Prophet p.b.u.h.) said: Then Allah (mighty and sublime be He) asks them - [though] He is most knowing about them: From where have you come? And they say: We have come from some servants of Yours on Earth: they were glorifying You (Subhana llah), exalting you (Allahu akbar), witnessing that there is no god but You (La ilaha illa llah), praising You (Al-Hamdu lillah), and asking [favours] of You. He says: And what do they ask of Me? They say: They ask of You Your Paradise. He says: And have they seen My Paradise? They say: No, O Lord. He says: And how would it be were they to have seen My Paradise! They say: And they ask protection of You. He says: From what do they ask protection of Me? They say: From Your Hell-fire, O Lord. He says: And have they seen My Hell-fire? They say: NO. He says: And how would it be were they to have seen My Hell-fire: They say: And they ask for Your forgiveness. He (the Prophet p.b.u.h) said: Then He says: I have forgiven them and I have bestowed upon them what they have asked for,and I have granted them sanctuary from that from which they asked protection. He (the Prophet p.b.u.h) said: They say: O Lord, among then is So-and-so, a much sinning servant, who was merely passing by and sat down with them. He (the Prophet p.b.u.h) said: And He says: And to him [too] I have given forgiveness: he who sits with such people shall not suffer.

It was related by Muslim (also by al-Bukhari, at-Tirmidhi, and an-Nasa'i).
 

Hadith Qudsi 15:

On the authority of Abu Harayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah the Almighty said: I am as My servant thinks I am (1). I am with him when he makes mention of Me. If he makes mention of Me to himself, I make mention of him to Myself; and if he makes mention of Me in an assembly, I make mention of him in an assemble better than it. And if he draws near to Me an arm's length, I draw near to him a fathom's length. And if he comes to Me walking, I go to him at speed.

(1) Another possible rendering of the Arabic is: "I am as My servant expects Me to be". The meaning is that forgiveness and acceptance of repentance by the Almighty is subject to His servant truly believing that He is forgiving and merciful. However, not to accompany such belief with right action would be to mock the Almighty.

It was related by al-Buhkari (also by Muslim, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn-Majah).
 

Hadith Qudsi 16:

On the authority of son of Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both), from the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), among the sayings he related from his Lord (glorified and exalted be He) is that He said:

Allah has written down the good deeds and the bad ones. Then He explained it [by saying that] he who has intended a good deed and has not done it, Allah writes it down with Himself as a full good deed, but if he has intended it and has done it, Allah writes it down with Himself as from ten good deeds to seven hundred times, or many times over. But if he has intended a bad deed and has not done it, Allah writes it down with Himself as a full good deed, but if he has intended it and has done it, Allah writes it down as one bad deed.

It was related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
 

Hadith Qudsi 17:

On the authority of Abu Dharr al-Ghifari (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) is that among the sayings he relates from his Lord (may He be glorified) is that He said:

O My servants, I have forbidden oppression for Myself and have made it forbidden amongst you, so do not oppress one another. O My servants, all of you are astray except for those I have guided, so seek guidance of Me and I shall guide you, O My servants, all of you are hungry except for those I have fed, so seek food of Me and I shall feed you. O My servants, all of you are naked except for those I have clothed, so seek clothing of Me and I shall clothe you. O My servants, you sin by night and by day, and I forgive all sins, so seek forgiveness of Me and I shall forgive you. O My servants, you will not attain harming Me so as to harm Me, and will not attain benefitting Me so as to benefit Me. O My servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you to be as pious as the most pious heart of any one man of you, that would not increase My kingdom in anything. O My servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you to be as wicked as the most wicked heart of any one man of you, that would not decrease My kingdom in anything. O My servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you to rise up in one place and make a request of Me, and were I to give everyone what he requested, that would not decrease what I have, any more that a needle decreases the sea if put into it. O My servants, it is but your deeds that I reckon up for you and then recompense you for, so let him finds good praise Allah and let him who finds other that blame no one but himself.

It was related by Muslim (also by at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah).
 

Hadith Qudsi 18:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) will say on the Day of Resurrection: O son of Adam, I fell ill and you visited Me not. He will say: O Lord, and how should I visit You when You are the Lord of the worlds? He will say: Did you not know that My servant So-and-so had fallen ill and you visited him not? Did you not know that had you visited him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for food and you fed Me not. He will say: O Lord, and how should I feed You when You are the Lord of the worlds? He will say: Did you not know that My servant So-and-so asked you for food and you fed him not? Did you not know that had you fed him you would surely have found that (the reward for doing so) with Me? O son of Adam, I asked you to give Me to drink and you gave Me not to drink. He will say: O Lord, how should I give You to drink whin You are the Lord of the worlds? He will say: My servant So-and-so asked you to give him to drink and you gave him not to drink. Had you given him to drink you would have surely found that with Me.

It was related by Muslim.
 

Hadith Qudsi 19:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) said: Pride is my cloak and greatness My robe, and he who competes with Me in respect of either of them I shall cast into Hell-fire.

It was related by Abu Dawud (also by Ibn Majah and Ahmad) with sound chains of authority. This Hadith also appears in Muslim in another version.
 

Hadith Qudsi 20:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

The gates of Paradise will be opened on Mondays and on Thursdays, and every servant [of Allah] who associates nothing with Allah will be forgiven, except for the man who has a grudge against his brother. [About them] it will be said: Delay these two until they are reconciled; delay these two until they are reconciled.

It was related by Muslim (also by Malik and Abu Dawud).
 

Hadith Qudsi 21:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said that Allah the Almighty said:

There are three (1) whose adversary I shall be on the Day of Resurrection: a man who has given his word by Me and has broken it; a man who has sold a free man (2) and has consumed the price; and a man who has hired a workman, has exacted his due in full from him and has not given him his wage.

(1) i.e. types of men. (2) i.e. a man who has made a slave of another and has sold him.

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Ibn Majah and Ahmad ibn Hanbal).
 

Hadith Qudsi 22:

On the authority of Abu Sa'id (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Let not any one of you belittle himself. They said: Ya Rasulullah, how can any one of us belittle himself? He said: He finds a matter concerning Allah about which he should say something, and he does not say [it], so Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says to him on the Day of Resurrection: What prevented you from saying something about such-and-such and such-and-such? He say: [It was] out of fear of people. Then He says: Rather it is I whom you should more properly fear.

It was related by Ibn Majah with a sound chain of authorities.
 

Hadith Qudsi 23:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah will say on the Day of Resurrection: Where are those who love one another through My glory? Today I shall give them shade in My shade, it being a day when there is no shade but My shade.

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Malik).
 

Hadith Qudsi 24:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

If Allah has loved a servant [of His] He calls Jibreel, alayhis-Salaam, and says: I love So-and-so, therefore love him. He (the Prophet pbuh) said: So Gabriel loves him. Then he (Jibreel) calls out in heaven, saying: Allah loves So-and-so, therefore love him. And the inhabitants of heaven love him. He (the Prophet pbuh) said: Then acceptance is established for him on earth. And if Allah has abhorred a servant [of His], He calls Gabriel and says: I abhor So-and-so, therefore abhor him. So Gabriel abhors him. Then Gabriel calls out to the inhabitants of heaven: Allah abhors So-and-so, therefore abhor him. He (the Prophet pbuh) said: So they abhor him, and abhorrence is established for him on earth.

It was related by Muslim (also by al-Bukhari, Malik, and at-Tirmidhi).
 

Hadith Qudsi 25: Very important Hadith!!!

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) said: Whosoever shows enmity to someone devoted to Me, I shall be at war with him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works (Nawafil) so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate about anything as much as I hesitate about [seizing] the soul of My faithful servant: he hates death and I hate hurting him.

It was related by al-Bukhari.
 

Hadith Qudsi 26:

On the authority of Abu Umamah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) said: Truly of those devoted to Me the one I most favour is a believer who is of meagre means and much given to prayer, who has been particular in the worship of his Lord and has obeyed Him inwardly (1), who was obscure among people and not pointed our, and whose sustenance was just sufficient to provide for him yet he bore this patiently. Then the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) rapped his hand and said: Death will have come early to him, his mourners will have been few, his estate scant.

(1) i.e. he has not been ostentatious in his obedience.

It was related by al-Imam at-Tirmidhi, al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and Ibn Majah.. Its chain of authorities is sound.
 

Hadith Qudsi 27:

On the authority of Masruq, who said:
 

We asked Abdullah Ibn Masud (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala anhu) about this ayat:

And do not regard those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead, rather are they alive with their Lord, being provided for [Holy Qur'an Chapter 3 Verse 169].

He said: We asked about that and the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: Their souls are in the insides of green birds having lanterns suspended from the Throne, roaming freely in Paradise where they please, then taking shelter in those lanterns. So their Lord cast a glance at them (1) and said: Do you wish for anything? They said: What shall we wish for when we roam freely in Paradise where we please? And thus did He do to them three times. When they say that they would not be spared from being asked [again], they said: O Lord, we would like for You to put back our souls into our bodies so that we might fight for Your sake once again. And when He saw that they were not in need of anything they were let be.

(1) i.e. at those who had been killed in the cause of Allah.

It was related by Muslim (also by at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah).
 

Hadith Qudsi 28:

On the authority of Jundub ibn Abdullah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

There was amongst those before you a man who had a wound. He was in [such] anguish that he took a knife and made with it a cut in his hand, and the blood did not cease to flow till he died. Allah the Almighty said: My servant has himself forestalled Me; I have forbidden him Paradise.

It was related by al-Bukhari.
 

Hadith Qudsi 29:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says: My faithful servant's reward from Me, if I have taken to Me his best friend from amongst the inhabitants of the world and he has then borne it patiently for My sake, shall be nothing less than Paradise.

It was related by al-Bukhari.
 

Hadith Qudsi 30:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah (mighty and sublime be He) said: If My servant likes to meet Me, I like to meet him; and if he dislikes to meet Me, I dislike to meet him. Prophetic explanation of this Sacred Hadith: He who likes to meet Allah, Allah likes to meet him; and he who dislikes to meet Allah, Allah dislikes to meet him. Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: O Prophet of Allah, is it because of the dislike of death, for all of us dislike death? The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: It is not so, but rather it is that when the believer is given news of Allah's mercy, His approval and His Paradise, he likes to meet Allah and Allah likes to meet him; but when the unbeliever is given news of Allah's punishment and His displeasure, he dislikes to meet Allah and Allah dislikes to meet him.

It was related by al-Bukhari and Malik. The Prophetic version is related by Muslim.
 

Hadith Qudsi 31:

On the authority of Jundub (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) related:

A man said: By Allah, Allah will not forgive So-and-so. At this Allah the Almighty said: Who is he who swears by Me that I will not forgive So-and-so? Verily I have forgiven So-and-so and have nullified your [own good] deeds (1) (or as he said [it]). (1) A similar Hadith, which is given by Abu Dawud, indicates that the person referred to was a goldly man whose previous good deeds were brought to nought through presuming to declare that Allah would not forgive someone's bad deeds.

It was related by Muslim.
 

Hadith Qudsi 32:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

A man sinned greatly against himself, and when death came to him he charged his sons, saying: When I have died, burn me, then crush me and scatter [my ashes] into the sea, for, by Allah, if my Lord takes possession of me, He will punish me in a manner in which He has punished no one [else]. So they did that to him. Then He said to the earth: Produce what you have taken-and there he was! And He said to him: What induced you to do what you did? He said: Being afraid of You, O my Lord (or he said: Being frightened of You) and because of that He forgave him.

It was related by Muslim, al-Bukhari, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.
 

Hadith Qudsi 33:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), from among the things he reports from his Lord (mighty and sublime be He), is that he said:

A servant [of Allah's] committed a sin and said: O Allah, forgive me my sin. And He (glorified and exalted be He) said: My servant has committed a sin and has known that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes for them. Then he sinned again and said: O Lord, forgive me my sin. And He (glorified and exalted be He) said: My servant has committed a sin and has known that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes for them. Then he sinned again and said: O Lord, forgive me my sin. And He (glorified and exalted be He) said: My servant has committed a sin and has known that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes for sins. Do what you wish, for I have forgiven you.

It was related by Muslim (also by al-Bukhari).
 

Hadith Qudsi 34:

On the authority of Anas (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) say:

Allah the Almighty said: O son of Adam, so long as you call upon Me and ask of Me, I shall forgive you for what you have done, and I shall not mind. O son of Adam, were your sins to reach the clouds of the sky and were you then to ask forgiveness of Me, I would forgive you. O son of Adam, were you to come to Me with sins nearly as great as the earth and were you then to face Me, ascribing no partner to Me, I would bring you forgiveness nearly as great at it.

It was related by at-Tirmidhi and al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Its chain of authorities is sound.
 

Hadith Qudsi 35:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Our Lord (glorified and exalted be He) descends each night to the earth's sky when there remains the final third of the night, and He says: Who is saying a prayer to Me that I may answer it? Who is asking something of Me that I may give it him? Who is asking forgiveness of Me that I may forgive him?

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim, Malik, at-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud). In a version by Muslim the Hadith ends with the words: And thus He continues till [the light of] dawn shines.
 

Hadith Qudsi 36:

On the authority of Anas (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) from the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam), who said:

The believers will gather together on the Day of Resurrection and will say: Should we not ask [someone] to intercede for us with our Lord? So they will come to Adam and will say: You are the Father of mankind; Allah created you with His hand He made His angels bow down to you and He taught you the names of everything, so intercede for us with you Lord so that He may give us relief form this place where we are. And he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] - and he will mention his wrongdoing and will feel ashamed and will say: Go to Noah, for he is the first messenger that Allah sent to the inhabitants of the earth. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] - and he will mention his having requested something of his Lord about which he had no [proper] knowledge (Quran Chapter 11 Verses 45-46), and he will feel ashamed and will say: Go to the Friend of the Merciful (Abraham). So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that]. Go to Moses, a servant to whom Allah talked and to whom He gave the Torah. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that] - and he will mention the talking of a life other that for a life (Quran Chapter 28 Verses 15-16), and he will fell ashamed in the sight of his Lord and will say: Go to Jesus, Allah's servant and messenger, Allah's word and spirit. So they will come to him and he will say: I am not in a position [to do that]. Go to Muhammad(Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam)f Allah be upon him), a servant to whom Allah has forgiven all his wrongdoing, past and future. So they will come to me and I shall set forth to ask permission to come to my Lord, and permission will be given, and when I shall see my Lord I shall prostrate myself. He will leave me thus for such time as it pleases Him, and then it will be said [to me]: Raise your head. Ask and it will be granted. Speak and it will be heard. Intercede and your intercession will be accepted. So I shall raise my head and praise Him with a form of praise that He will teach me. Then I shall intercede and HE will set me a limit [as to the number of people], so I shall admit them into Paradise. Then I shall return to Him, and when I shall see my Lord [I shall bow down] as before. Then I shall intercede and He will set me a limit [as to the number of people]. So I shall admit them into Paradise. Then I shall return for a third time, then a fourth, and I shall say: There remains in Hell-fire only those whom the Quran has confined and who must be there for eternity. There shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing a barley-corn; then there shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing a grain of wheat; then there shall come out of Hell-fire he who has said: There is no god but Allah and who has in his heart goodness weighing an atom.

It was related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, at-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah.
 

Hadith Qudsi 37:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah said: I have prepared for My righteous servants what no eye has seen and no ear has heard, not has it occurred to human heart. Thus recite if you wish (1): And no soul knows what joy for them (the inhabitants of Paradise) has been kept hidden [Quran Chapter 32 Ayat 17].

(1) The words "Thus recite if you wish" are those of Abu Harayrah.

It was related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.
 

Hadith Qudsi 38:

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

When Allah created Paradise and Hell-fire, He sent Jibreel, alayhis-Salaam, to Paradise, saying: Look at it and at what I have prepared therein for its inhabitants. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: So he came to it and looked at it and at what Allah had prepared therein for its inhabitants. The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: So he returned to Him and said: By your glory, no one hears of it without entering it. So He ordered that it be encompassed by forms of hardship, and He said: Return to it and look at what I have prepared therein for its inhabitants. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said: So he returned to it and found that it was encompassed by forms of hardship (1). Then he returned to Him and said: By Your glory, I fear that no one will enter it. He said: Go to Hell-fire and look at it and what I have prepared therein for its inhabitants, and he fount that it was in layers, one above the other. Then he returned to Him and said: By Your glory, no one who hears of it will enter it. So He ordered that it be encompassed by lusts. Then He said: Return to it. And he returned to it and said: By Your glory, I am frightened that no one will escape from entering it.

(1) The Arabic word used here is "makarih", the literal meaning of which is "things that are disliked". In this context it refers to forms of religious discipline that man usually finds onerous.

It was related by Tirmidhi, who said that it was a good and sound Hadith (also by Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i).
 

Hadith Qudsi 39:

On the authority of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Paradise and Hell-fire disputed together, and Hell-fire said: In me are the mighty and the haughty. Paradise said: In me are the weak and the poor. So Allah judged between them, [saying]: You are Paradise, My mercy; through you I show mercy to those I wish. And you are Hell-fire, My punishment; through you I punish those I wish, and it is incumbent upon Me that each of you shall have its fill.

It was related by Muslim (also by al-Bukhari and at-Tirmidhi).
 

Hadith Qudsi 40:

On the authority of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Radhi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu), who said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa Sallam) said:

Allah will say to the inhabitant of Paradise: O inhabitants of Paradise! They will say: O our Lord, we present ourselves and are at Your pleasure, and goodness rests in Your hands. Then He will say: Are you contented? And they will say: And how should we not be contented, O Lord, when You have given to us that which You have given to no one else of Your creation? Then He will say: Would not like Me to give you something better than that? And they will say: O Lord and what thing is better than that? And He will say: I shall cause My favour to descend upon you and thereafter shall never be displeased with you.

It was related by al-Bukhari (also by Muslim and at-Tirmidhi).

 

 

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